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: The CIA’s Mind Control Program – by Stephen Lendman

MK-ULTRA was the code name for a secret CIA mind control program, begun in
1953, under Director Allen Dulles. Its purpose was multifold, including to
perfect a truth drug for interrogating suspected Soviet spies during the Cold
War. It followed earlier WW II hypnosis, primitive drugs research, and the US
Navy’s Project Chatter, explained by its Bureau of Medicine and Surgery in
response to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request as follows:

It began “in the fall of 1947 focusing on the identification and testing
of drugs (LSD and others) in interrogations and the recruitment of agents. The
research included laboratory experiments on both animal and human subjects. The
program ended shortly after the Korean War in 1953.”

It was run under the direction of Dr. Charles Savage of the Naval Medical
Research Institute, Bethesda, MD from 1947 – 1953, after which CIA’s Office of
Scientific Intelligence continued it under the name Project Bluebird, its first
mind control program to:

— learn how to condition
subjects to withstand information from being extracted from them by known

— develop interrogation methods to exert control;

— develop memory enhancement techniques; and

— establish ways to prevent hostile control of Agency personnel.

In 1951, it was renamed Project Artichoke, then MK-ULTRA under Deputy CIA
Director Richard Helms in 1953. It aimed to control human behavior through
psychedelic and hallucinogenic drugs, electroshock, radiation, graphology,
paramilitary techniques, and psychological/sociological/anthropological
methods, among others – a vast open-field of mind experimentation trying
anything that might work, legal or otherwise on willing and unwitting subjects.

Ongoing at different times were 149 sub-projects in 80 US and Canadian
universities, medical centers and three prisons, involving 185 researchers, 15
foundations and numerous drug companies. Everything was top secret, and most
records later destroyed, yet FOIA suits salvaged thousands of pages with
documented evidence of the horrific experiments and their effects on human

Most were unwitting guinea pigs, and those consenting were misinformed of the
dangers. James Stanley was a career soldier when given LSD in 1958 along with
1,000 other military “volunteers.” They suffered hallucinations,
memory loss, incoherence, and severe personality changes. Stanley exhibited
uncontrollable violence. It destroyed his family, impeded his working ability,
and he never knew why until the Army asked him to participate in a follow-up

He sued for damages under the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA), his case reaching
the Supreme Court in United States v. Stanley. Argued and decided in 1987, the
Court dismissed his claim (5 – 4), ruling his injuries occurred during military
service. Justices Thurgood Marshall, William Brennan and Sandra Day O’Conner
wrote dissenting opinions, saying the Nuremberg Code applies to soldiers as
well as civilians. In 1996, Stanley got $400,000 in compensation, but no
apology from the government.

Perhaps MK-ULTRA’s most publicized victim was Frank Olsen, a biochemist working
for the Army Chemical Corps’ Special Operations Division at Ft. Detrick, MD. On
November 18, 1953, he was administered LSD. Immediately, he became agitated and
severely paranoid. Nine days later, he reportedly committed suicide by jumping
13 stories to his death through a New York hotel’s closed window. His family
members didn’t know he was drugged until MK-ULTRA was exposed in 1975.

President Gerald Ford apologized, granted a $750,000 settlement, but Olson’s
son discovered documents suggesting his father was killed. In 1994, he exhumed
the body, had it forensically evaluated, and the conclusion was homicide based
on a previously undetected skull fracture suggesting a blow on the head and
other disturbing evidence.

Stanley Glickman was another MK-ULTRA tragedy, an unwitting victim of
hallucinogenic drugs and electroshock treatment. He became traumatized,
couldn’t work, barely ate, suffered a psychological breakdown and never fully
recovered. After learning about the CIA’s LSD experiments, he sued in 1983. The
trial was delayed 16 years, he died, but his sister Gloria Kronisch pursued the

MK-ULTRA chief Stanley Gottleib was at issue, hired to run its Technical
Service Staff (TSS) to develop poisons to assassinate political opponents,
truth serum drugs for interrogating spies, and mind control techniques to
create robot assassins or unwitting double agents. He used Nazi scientists and
their state of the art methods, perfected on concentration camp victims. Some
were known as programmers, skilled professionals in the art of breaking down
and controlling the human mind.

Joseph Mengele did similar work, experimenting extensively with children and
adults using mescaline, electroshock therapy, hypnosis, sensory deprivation,
torture, rape, starvation, and trauma bonding. He was so successful with the
latter technique that survivors expressed strong affection for him.

The CIA and US military copied the Nazi methodology through numerous programs,
including MK-ULTRA, MK being an abbreviation for words “mind control”
in German. According to obtained documents, it works best when severe trauma
(such as rape) occurs by age three, the result often causing the personality to
split or dissociate (called dissociative identity disorder or DID) to repress
painful memories.

Therapists can cause multiple personality disorder (MPD) by mind manipulation,
but early in life trauma makes victims especially vulnerable. Gottlieb focused
on LSD for mind control and exotic poisons and drugs for political

Under Operation Paperclip, 9,000 Nazi scientists and technicians were recruited
to help undermine the Soviet Union.

In 1952, Gottlieb met Glickman in a Paris cafe, bought him a drink and laced it
with LSD. After finally being held to account, he became ill. The trial was
postponed, and on the eve of its resumption he died unexpectedly. At the time,
New York Times and Los Angeles Times obituaries reported that his family
refused to disclose the cause. The online WorldNet Daily explained it was after
a “month-long bout with pneumonia,” saying that after being admitted
to the University of Virginia Medical Center, he lapsed into a coma, never
recovered, but foul play couldn’t be determined.

At trial against his estate, the judge died of a heart attack while exercising.
The question again arose. Was it natural or was he killed, especially since his
replacement was prejudicial to the plaintiff having thrown out his case two
years earlier. Perhaps so after the jury ruled against Glickman’s family,
denying them justice.

On December 22, 1974, Seymour Hersh exposed MK-ULTRA in a New York Times
article. Headlined, “Huge CIA Operation Reported in US Against Antiwar
Forces, Other Dissidents in Nixon Years,” it documented illegal
activities, including secret experiments on US citizens during the 1960s and
earlier. Church Committee Congressional investigations followed, headed by
Senator Frank Church, on abusive intelligence practices, replaced by the Pike
Committee five months later. The Rockefeller Commission, under vice president
Nelson Rockefeller, also examined the domestic activities of the CIA, FBI, and
military intelligence agencies.

By summer 1975, it was learned that CIA and Department of Defense had conducted
illegal experiments on willing and unwitting subjects as part of an exhaustive
program to influence human behavior through psychoactive drugs (including LSD
and mescaline) and other chemical, biological, psychological, and other

Origins of CIA Mind Manipulation Practices

CIA became interested in Montreal Dr. Ewen Cameron’s work at McGill
University’s Allan Memorial Institute. With full knowledge of the Canadian
government, he was funded to perform bizarre experiments on his psychiatric
patients, including keeping them asleep and isolated for weeks, then
administering large doses of electroshock and experimental drug cocktails, LSD
and PCP angel dust among them.

Though clearly unethical, Cameron believed by blasting the human brain with an
array of shocks, he could unmake impaired minds, rebuilding them with new
personalities cleansed of their previous state. It was voodoo science and
failed, but CIA gained a wealth of knowledge it’s used to this day.

In 1951, the Agency engaged McGill’s director of psychology, Dr. Donald Hebb,
and others to conduct sensory-deprivation experiments on volunteer students.
They showed intense isolation disrupts clear thinking enough to make subjects
receptive to suggestion. They were also formidable interrogation techniques
amounting to torture when forcibly administered.

These early experiments laid the foundation for CIA’s two-stage torture process
– sensory deprivation followed by overload. University of Wisconsin historian
Alfred McCoy documented them in his book, “A Question of Torture: CIA
Interrogation, from the Cold War to the War on Terror,” calling them
“the first real revolution in the cruel science of pain in more than three

CIA developed and codified them in manuals, used extensively in Southeast Asia,
Central America, Iraq, Afghanistan, Guantanamo, and at secret black sites
globally. McCoy referred to an offshore information extraction mini-gulag
during the Cold War and War on Terror. Out of sight, nothing is banned,
including physical harshness and psychologically crippling mind control methods
that turn human beings into mush.

MK-ULTRA was one of them, even though Gerald Ford’s 1976 Executive Order (EO
11905) “establish(ed) policies to improve the quality of intelligence
needed for national security (and) establish(ed) effective oversight to assure
compliance with law in the management and direction of intelligence agencies
and departments of the national government.”

The EO prohibited “experimentation with drugs on human subjects, except with
their informed consent, in writing and witnessed by a disinterested party, of
each such human subject,” according to guidelines issued by the National
Commission. Subsequent Carter and Reagan directives banned all human
experimentation. Nonetheless, they continue, in violation of the Nuremberg Code
that prohibits:

— medical experiments
without the voluntary consent of human subjects – “without coercion,
fraud, deceit, and the full disclosure of known risks;”

— those “where there is an a priori reason to believe that death or
disabling injury will occur;” and

— only ones expected “to yield fruitful results for the good of society,
unprocurable by other methods or means of study….”

Conducting human mind control experiments are clearly illegal and unethical.
They’re more sophisticated than ever today, and claims that MK-ULTRA
experiments were halted in the 1970s were false. Renamed they continue and much

America’s Long History of Human Experimentation

Prior examples include:

— In 1931, Dr. Cornelius
Rhoads infected human subjects with cancer cells under the auspices of the
Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations; Rhoads later conducted
radiation exposure experiments on American soldiers and civilian hospital

— In 1932, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study began on 200 black men; they’re weren’t
told of their illness, were denied treatment, and were used as human guinea
pigs to follow their disease symptoms and progression; they all subsequently

— in 1940, 400 Chicago prisoners were infected with malaria to study the
effects of new and experimental drugs;

— from 1942 – 1945, the US Navy used human subjects (locked in chambers) to
test gas masks and clothing;

— since the 1940s, human radiation experiments were conducted to test its
effects and determine how much can kill; unwitting subjects were used in
prisons, hospitals, orphanages, and mental institutions, including men, women,
children, and the unborn of all races, mostly people from lower socio-economic
brackets; in addition, more than 200,000 US soldiers were exposed to above
ground nuclear tests; many later became ill and died;

— in 1945, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) implemented “Program
F,” the most exhaustive American study of fluoride’s health effects – a
key component in atomic bomb production and one of the most toxic chemicals
known; it causes marked adverse central nervous system effects; in the interest
of national security, the information was suppressed;

— in 1945, VA hospital patients became guinea pigs for medical experiments;

— in 1947, the AEC’s Colonel EE Kirkpatrich issued secret document #07075001,
stating that the agency will begin administering intravenous doses of
radioactive substances to human subjects;

— in 1949, the US Army released biological agents in US cities to study the
effects of a real germ warfare attack; tests continued secretly through at
least the 1960s in San Francisco, New York, Washington, DC, Panama City and Key
West, FL, Minnesota, other midwest locations, along the Pennsylvania turnpike
and elsewhere;

— in 1950, the Defense Department (DOD) began open-air testing of nuclear
weapons in desert areas, then monitored downwind residents for medical problems
and mortality rates;

— in 1951, African-Americans were exposed to potentially fatal stimulants as
part of a race-specific fungal weapons test in Virginia;

— in 1953, DOD released zinc cadmium sulfide gas over Winnipeg, Canada, St.
Louis, Minneapolis, Fort Wayne, the Monocacy River Valley, MD, and Leesburg, VA
– to determine how efficiently chemical agents can be dispersed;

— in 1953, joint Army-Navy-CIA experiments were conducted in New York and San
Francisco, exposing tens of thousands of people to the airborne agents Serratia
marcescens and Bacillus glogigii;

— in 1955, the CIA released bacteria from the Army’s Tampa, FL biological
warfare arsenal to test its ability to infect human populations;

— in 1956, the US military released mosquitoes infected with Yellow Fever over
Savannah, GA and Avon Park, FL to test the health effects on humans;

— in 1965, Homesburg State Prison, Philadelphia prisoners were subjected to
dioxin, the highly toxic Agent Orange agent, to study their carcinogenic

— in 1966, the New York subway system was used for a germ warfare experiment;

— in 1969, an apparent nerve agent killed thousands of sheep in Utah;

— in 1970, the Military Review reported that “ethnic weapons”
development was intensified to be able to target specific ethnic groups thought
susceptible to genetic differences and DNA variations;

— in 1976, Americans were warned about an earlier Swine Flu scare, urging
everyone to be vaccinated; millions complied, many of whom were harmed; 500
Guillan-Barre Syndrome (GBS – the deadly nerve disorder) resulted; people died
from respiratory failure after severe paralysis, and experts said the vaccine
increased the GBS risk level eight-fold;

— in 1985 and 1986, open-air biological agents testing was done in populated

— in 1990, over 1,500 six-month old Los Angeles black and hispanic babies were
given an experimental measles vaccine, never informing parents of the potential

— in 1990 and 1991 before deploying to the Persian Gulf, all US troops were
inoculated with experimental anthrax and botulinum toxoid vaccines, even though
concerns were raised about their adverse long-term effects; over 12,000 died
and over 30% became ill from non-combat-related factors in what subsequently
was called Gulf War Syndrome, the result of exposure to a variety of toxins;

— in 1994, Senator Jay Rockefeller issued a report revealing that for the past
50 or more years, DOD used hundreds of thousands of US military personnel,
exposing them to dangerous substances experimentally; materials included
mustard and nerve gas, ionizing radiation, psychochemicals, hallucinogens, and
other drugs;

— in 1995, Dr. Garth Nicolson discovered that toxic agents used during the
Gulf War were pre-tested on Texas Department of Corrections prisoners;

— in 1996, DOD admitted that Gulf War troops were exposed to chemical agents;

— in 2009, experimental vaccines were again used to inoculate people globally
in response to another hyped Swine Flu scare; scattered reports of illnesses
and deaths followed.

MK-ULTRA Victim Maryam Ruhullah

This writer will interview Ruhullah and Dr. James Randall Noblitt, a licensed
psychologist, on The Progressive Radio News Hour (on The Progressive Radio
Network), February 18 at 10AM US Central time to discuss MK-ULTRA, Ruhullah’s
experience and Noblitt’s work with survivors of extreme abuse and individuals
afflicted with identity dissociation. Noblitt is a Professor at the California
School of Professional Psychology and Chair of the International Society of
Trauma and Dissociation Ritual Abuse/Mind Control Interest Group.

The program will be archived for later listening.

As an MK-ULTRA victim, Ruhullah’s memory was impaired and somewhat still is
because of what she experienced. She explained it as follows.

In the early 1970s, she lived in Boston, MA, was married with a six-year old
son, and as a lawyer worked for a prestigious firm, its name she can’t
remember. “One day, two federal agents came to (her) home
unannounced,” asking her to be a federal witness against an alleged
organized crime figure. For her safety, they explained, she’d be placed in
protective custody for a period not exceeding six months. She was asked to
leave her family and job immediately, and say nothing to her husband and

She “was forced to leave (her) home with the agents that day.” She
got no choice, and “was treated more like a prisoner than a witness.”
She couldn’t use the phone or communicate with anyone, was transfered
frequently, and held in “very low budget places,” during which time
her life “became a succession of abuses and exploitations.”

“To this day,” she says, she doesn’t know precisely “when or why
the government decided to use” her for MK-ULTRA experimentation, “but
one day (she) was a mother, wife, and attorney, then, (later) had no memory of
(her) past.”

Having partly recovered it, she recalls “being given non-medically
necessary electro-shock treatments. This was done to create amnesia (to block
her) core personality and replac(e) it with” only need-to-know

She remembers “that the shock treatment given (her) was so severe and
often that one day something happened and” she wasn’t returned to her
room. She now speaks of “an unbelievable long list of horrid exploitations
and inhumane abuses” done to her.

In the late 1980s, fragments of her memory returned. She sought information on
her case through an FOIA request, but was told no records were found. From 1992
– 1996, no one helped her until a member of B’nai Brith, Stephanie Suleiman,
offered to do so but needed a few weeks to complete other work.

When Ruhullah recontacted her, she learned that “this thirty-two year old
mother of two died of a heart attack,” very suspicious given her age.

Ruhullah also explains that federal agents stopped communicating with her. Her
experiences were “totally removed from the public record,” and she
went from “being a missing person to becoming a person erased.” She’s
now divorced and unable to contact her children and former friends. “The
US government does not want (her) story told.”

She adds that the “only way (she) can measure (her) length of time held
(is) by her son’s age. (He) was six when (agents) entered (her) home, and he is
(now) in his late thirties.” She considers herself to have been continuously
separated from her children, grandchildren, family, friends, assets, memories,
and educated skills.

She calls each day “an experience of being held against (her) will while
living in a vat of bureaucratic arrogance which refuses to acknowledge what was
done (made worse by stopping (her) from getting (her) life back.” Each day
she’s “being more injured and having more of (her) life robbed from”

She says she “was not released from custody.” After being used for
medical experiments, she was “given an implanted false identity, then left
penniless and without proof of (her) true identity or lineage.” She still
considers herself a prisoner, a body with no persona, with little knowledge of
her former self, stripped of everything important in her life.

MK-ULTRA and Ruhullah’s story will be featured on the Progressive Radio News
Hour on February 18 at 10AM US Central time on The Progressive Radio Network.
Listen live or later through archives.

Stephen Lendman is a Research Associate of the Centre for Research on
Globalization. He lives in Chicago and can be reached at

Also visit his blog site at and listen to the Lendman
News Hour on Monday – Friday and The Progressive Radio
News Hour Thursdays and weekends for cutting-edge discussions with
distinguished guests on world and national issues. All programs are archived
for easy listening.

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