book, The C.I.A. Doctors, is based on 15,000 pages of documents I received from
the CIA through the Freedom of Information Act and dozens of papers published
in medical journals.
By Colin A. Ross, Psychiatrist,
Author, The CIA Doctors, Military
Mind Control and Project
September 3, 2009
CIA Doctors,[i] is
based on 15,000 pages of documents I received from the CIA through the Freedom
of Information Act and dozens of papers published in medical journals.
These papers report the results of research funded by the Air Force Office of
Scientific Research, the Department of the Army, the Office of Naval Research
and the CIA. From 1950 to 1972, the CIA funded TOP SECRET research at
many leading universities including Harvard, Yale, Cornell, Johns Hopkins and
Stanford. There was a series of CIA mind control programs including
BLUEBIRD, ARTICHOKE, MKULTRA, MKSEARCH and MKNAOMI.
and related programs had several over-lapping purposes. One was to
purchase mind control drugs from suppliers. Another was to form
relationships with researchers who might later be used as consultants at the
TOP SECRET level. The core purpose of these programs was to learn how to
enhance interrogations, erase and insert memories, and create and run
Manchurian Candidates. All of this is described clearly and explicitly in
the declassified CIA documents, which provide a glimpse into the tip of the
iceberg of CIA and military mind control.
CIA mind control experiments were interwoven with radiation, chemical and
biological weapons experiments conducted on children, comatose patients,
pregnant women, the general population and other unwitting groups who had no
idea they were subjects in secret experiments. Radiation, bacteria and
funguses were released over urban areas. A large cloud of radiation was
released over Spokane during OPERATION GREEN RUN; plutonium was injected into a
comatose patient in Boston by Dr. William Sweet, a member of the Harvard brain
electrode team; plutonium was placed in the cereal of mentally handicapped
children at the Fernald School in New England; 751 pregnant women were injected
with plutonium at Vanderbilt University; the bacteria serratia
maracens was released into the air in San Francisco, resulting in a
series of infections and plutonium was injected into an amputee at the
University of Rochester. All these experiments were conducted without any
informed consent or meaningful follow-up. Hallucinogens, marijuana,
amphetamines and other drugs were administered to imprisoned narcotic addicts
in Lexington, Kentucky, terminal cancer patients at Georgetown University
Hospital, hospitalized sex offenders at Ionia State Hospital in Michigan and
johns picked by prostitutes hired by the CIA in San Francisco and New York.
of these experiments were conducted by psychiatrists with TOP SECRET
clearance. These included Louis Jolyon West, Chairman of the Department
of Psychiatry at the University of Oklahoma and later at UCLA; Dr. Robert Hyde
in Boston; Dr. Carl Rogers at the University of Wisconsin; Dr. Martin Orne at
Harvard; Dr. Charles Osgood at the University of Illinois; Dr. James Hamilton
at Stanford; Dr. Charles Geschichter at the University of Richmond and Dr.
Harold Abramson and Dr. Harold Wolff at Cornell. Other TOP SECRET-cleared
MKULTRA contractors included Dr. Maitland Baldwin, a neurosurgeon at the
National Institutes of Health and Dr. Carl Pfeiffer, a pharmacologist at Emory.
CIA doctors violated all medical codes of ethics dating back to Hippocrates,
including the Nuremberg Code. The experimental subjects were not told the
real purpose of the experiments, did not give informed consent, were not
afforded outside counsel and received no meaningful follow-up. As
described by the psychiatrists in published papers, experiments with LSD and
other hallucinogens, combined with sensory deprivation, electroshock and other
interrogation techniques, resulted in psychosis and death among other “side
effects.” The purpose of these experiments was to see how easily a
person could be put into a psychotic state or controlled.
a series of MKULTRA projects, the CIA paid a former Bureau of Narcotics
officer, George White, to set up safe houses in San Francisco and New York that
were decorated like brothels. George White then hired prostitutes to pick
up johns at bars, bring them back to the safe house, give them LSD without
their knowledge, and then have sex with them. The CIA officers watched
the sex through one-way mirrors. The project documents state that the
purpose of the experiments was to test the effects of LSD on unwitting subjects
under field conditions that mimicked an interrogation of a foreign operative.
one of the memos contained in the MKULTRA files for these projects, however,
another purpose of the safe house operation is revealed. The CIA was
actually testing the performance of “Jekyll-Hyde” identities they had created
in the prostitutes. They wanted to see if they could make female spies or
female agents with alternate controllable personalities. Another purpose
of these experiments was to test the CIA’s Manchurian Candidate prostitutes
under conditions that mimicked a field operation. The johns were given
LSD as part of the cover for testing the CIA’s female Manchurian Candidates
prior to their use in actual operations (the mission being to have sex with and
extract information from targets). The recruitment of street prostitutes
provided an additional layer of cover for the testing of the Manchurian
Candidates, plus it provided free live pornography for the CIA officers.
other experiments, conducted by Dr. Jose Delgado at Yale and Drs. Vernon Mark,
Frank Ervin and William Sweet at Harvard, brain electrodes were implanted in
people and their mental state and behavior was controlled from a remote radio
transmitter box. These experiments were conducted with funding from the
Office of Naval Research. In experiments at Tulane funded by the CIA and
the Army, implantation of brain electrodes was combined with injecting
mescaline and other substances directly into the experimental subjects’ brains.
ARTICHOKE and MKULTRA were the precursors of present-day enhanced
interrogation programs used by the CIA at secret prisons outside
the United States. Water-boarding, electric shock, hooding, prolonged
sleep deprivation, death threats and other techniques discussed in the Senate and
Congress and in the media, are, in my opinion, elements of a limited
hangout, a CIA strategy in which a little bit of the truth is
revealed in order to cover up the greater part of the truth. None of
these experiments or operational programs would be possible without the
participation of doctors, psychiatrists and psychologists. The doctors
are directly involved in testing the interrogation techniques and monitoring
purpose of mind control experiments is controlling human behavior: making enemy
combatants open up during interrogation; protecting secret information by
erasing memories; making spies more resistant to interrogation because secret
information is held by hidden identities and making people more prone to
influence, social control and suggestion. It has nothing to do with
medical treatment, easing suffering or curing disease. The mind control
experiments and operational programs violate basic human rights and all codes
of medical ethics.
Dr. Colin Ross is a psychiatrist, internationally renowned
researcher, author and lecturer. In addition to The
and Military Mind Control, he is also author of Project Bluebird, in which he
exposes unethical experiments conducted by psychiatrists to create amnesia, new
identities, hypnotic access codes, and new memories in the minds of
experimental subjects. His research is based on 15,000 pages of documents
obtained under the Freedom of Information Act. Dr. Ross is a past president of
the International Society for the Study of Dissociation. He is the founder and
President of the Colin A. Ross Institute for Psychological Trauma.
A. Ross (2006). The
CIA Doctors: Human Rights Violations By American Psychiatrists.
Richardson, TX: Manitou Communications.