Memoirs of Mr. Hempher a British
Spy Who Created Salafi Wahibism
Memoirs Of Mr. Hempher, The British Spy To The
Middle East is the title of a document that was published in series (episodes)
in the German paper Spiegel and later on in a prominent French paper. A
Lebanese doctor translated the document to the Arabic language and from there
on it was translated to English and other languages. Waqf Ikhlas publications
put out and circulated the document in English in hard copy and electronically
under the title: Confessions of a British spy and British enmity against Islam.
In this narrative
Hempher, tells a tale for his instrumental role in founding the conservative
Islamic reform movement of Wahhabism. The Stratigies to Contain islam through
Tampering and Also invention of False Superficial Religion , and to Further its
Goals of Great Game this Salafist Wahibism was Used to make further Inroad in
Form of Deobandi , Barelevis and Even Qadiani Movement in India too .
The book has been
denounced by Wahhabi Muslims and called an “imaginary
fictional narrative, coined deliberately to discredit” Muhammad ibn
Abd-al-Wahhab “and his followers by the British”
by Mr. Hempher Member of British Intelligence and Ministry of
Book By Dr Siddik Gumus Exposing Salafi Wahibism After
translating Memoirs of British Spy.
Our Great Britain is very vast. The sun rises over its seas, and
sets, again, below its seas. Our State is relatively weak yet in its colonies
in India, China and Middle East. These countries are not entirely under our
domination. However, we have been carrying on a very active and successful
policy in these places. We shall be in full possession of all of them very
soon. Two things are of importance:
1- To try to retain the places we have already obtained;
2- To try to take possession of those places we have not
The Ministry of Colonies assigned a commission from each of the
colonies for the execution of these two tasks. As soon as I entered the Ministry
of Colonies, the Minister put his trust in me and appointed me the
administrator of the company of East India. Outwardly it was a company of
trade. But its real task was to search for ways of taking control of the very
vast lands of India.
Our government was not at all nervous about India. India was a
country where people from various nationalities, speaking different languages,
and having contrasting interests lived together. Nor were we afraid of China.
For the religions dominant in China were Buddhism and Confucianism, neither of
which was much of a threat. Both of them were dead religions that instituted no
concern for life and which were no more than forms of addresses. For this
reason, the people living in these two countries were hardly likely to have any
feelings of patriotism. These two countries did not worry us, the British
government. Yet the events that might occur later were not out of consideration
for us. Therefore, we were designing long term plans to wage discord,
ignorance, poverty, and even diseases in these countries. We were imitating the
customs and traditions of these two countries, thus easily concealing our
What frazzled our nerves most was the Islamic countries. We had
already made some agreements, all of which were to our advantage, with the Sick
Man (the Ottoman Empire). Experienced members of the Ministry of Colonies
predicted that this sick man would pass away in less than a century. In
addition, we had made some secret agreements with the Iranian government and placed
in these two countries statesmen whom we had made masons. Such corruptions as
bribery, incompetent administration and inadequate religious education, which
in its turn led to busying with pretty women and consequently to neglect of
duty, broke the backbones of these two countries. In spite of all these, we
were anxious that our activities should not yield the results we expected, for
reasons I am going to cite below:
1- Muslims are extremely devoted to Islam. Every individual
Muslims is as strongly attached to Islam as a priest or monk to Christianity,
if not more. As it is known, priests and monks would rather die than give up
Christianity. The most dangerous of such people are the Shiites in Iran. For
they put down people who are not Shiites as disbelievers and foul people.
Christians are like noxious dirt according to Shiites. Naturally, one would do
one’s best to get rid of dirt. I once asked a Shiite this: Why do you look on
Christians as such? The answer I was given was this: “The Prophet of Islam was
a very wise person. He put Christians under a spiritual oppression in order to
make them find the right way by joining Allah’s religion, Islam. As a matter of
fact, it is a State policy to keep a person found dangerous under a spiritual
oppression until he pledges obedience. The dirt I am speaking about is not
material; it is a spiritual oppression which is not peculiar to Christians
alone. It involves Sunnites and all disbelievers. Even our ancient Magian
Iranian ancestors are foul according to Shiites.”
I said to him: “Well! Sunnites and Christians believe in Allah,
in Prophets, and in the Judgment Day, too; why should they be foul, then?” He
replied, “They are foul for two reasons: They impute mendacity to our Prophet,
Hadrat Muhammad may Allah protect us against such an act! (1)* And we, in
response to this atrocious imputation, follow the rule expressed in the saying,
If a person torments you, you can torment him in return’, and say to them: ‘You
are foul.’ Second; Christians make offensive allegations about the Prophets of
Allah. For instance, they say: Isaa (Jesus) ‘alaihis-salaam’ would take (hard)
drinks. Because he was accursed, he was crucified.”
In consternation, I said to the man that Christians did not say
so. “Yes, they do,” was the answer, “and you don’t know. It is written so in
the Holy Bible.” I became quite. For the man was right in the first respect, if
not in the second respect. I did not want to continue the dispute any longer.
Otherwise they might be suspicious of me in an Islamic attire as I was. I
therefore avoided such disputes.
2- Islam was once a religion of administration and authority.
And Muslims were respected. It would be difficult to tell these respectable
people that they are slaves now. Nor would it be possible to falsify the
Islamic history and say to Muslims: The honor and respect you obtained at one
time was the result of some (favorable) conditions. Those days are gone now,
and they will never come back.
3- We were very anxious that the Ottomans and Iranians might notice
our plots and foil them. Despite the fact that these two States had already
been debilitated considerably, we still did not feel certain because they had a
central government with property, weaponry, and authority.
4- We were extremely uneasy about the Islamic scholars. For the
scholars of Istanbul and Al-adh-har, the Iraqi and Damascene scholars were
insurmountable obstacles in front of our purposes. For they were the kind of
people who would never compromise their principles to the tiniest extent
because they had turned against the transient pleasures and adornments of the
world and fixed their eyes on the Paradise promised by Qur’aan al-kereem. The
people followed them. Even the Sultan was afraid of them. Sunnites were not so
strongly adherent to scholars as were Shiites. For Shiites did not read books;
they only recognized scholars, and did not show due respect to the Sultan.
Sunnites, on the other hand, read books, and respected scholars and the Sultan.
We therefore prepared a series of conferences. Yet each time we
tried we saw with disappointment that the road was closed for us. The reports
we received from our spies were always frustrating, and the conferences came to
naught. We did not give up hope, though. For we are the sort of people who have
developed the habit of taking a deep breath and being patient.
The Minister himself, the highest priestly orders, and a few
specialists attended one of our conferences. There were twenty of us. Our
conference lasted three hours, and the final session was closed without
reaching a fruitful conclusion. Yet a priest said, “Do not worry! For the
Messiah and his companions obtained authority only after a persecution that
lasted three hundred years. It is hoped that, from the world of the unknown, he
will cast an eye on us and grant us the good luck of evicting the unbelievers,
(he means Muslims), from their centers, be it three hundred years later. With a
strong belief and long-term patience, we must arm ourselves! In order to obtain
authority, we must take possession of all sorts of media, try all possible
methods. We must try to spread Christianity among Muslims. It will be good for
us to realize our goal, even if it will be after centuries. For fathers work
for their children.”
A conference was held, and diplomats and religious men from
Russia and France as well as from England attended. I was very lucky. I, too,
attended because I and the Minister were in very good terms. In the conference,
plans of breaking Muslims into groups and making them abandon their faith and
bringing them round to belief (Christianizing them) like in Spain was
discussed. Yet the conclusions reached were not as had been expected. I have
written all the talks held in that conference in my book “Ilaa Melekoot-il-Meseeh.”
It is difficult to suddenly uproot a tree that has sent out its
roots to the depths of the earth. But we must make hardships easy and overcome
them. Christianity came to spread. Our Lord the Messiah promised us this. The
bad conditions that the east and the west were in, helped Muhammad. Those
conditions being gone, have taken away the nuisances (he means Islam) that
accompanied them. We observe with pleasure today that the situation has changed
completely. As a result of great works and endeavors of our ministry and other
Christian governments Muslims are on the decline now. Christians, on the other
hand, are gaining ascendancy. It is time we retook the places we lost
throughout centuries. The powerful State of Great Britain pioneers this blessed
task [of annihilating Islam].
In the Hijree year 1122, C.E. 1710, the Minister of Colonies
sent me to Egypt, Iraq, Hidjaz and Istanbul to act as a spy and to obtain information
necessary and sufficient for the breaking up of Muslims. The Ministry appointed
nine more people, full of agility and courage, for the same mission and at the
same time. In addition to the money, information and maps we would need, we
were given a list containing names of statesmen, scholars, and chiefs of
tribes. I can never forget! When I said farewell to the secretary, he said,
“The future of our State is dependent on your success. Therefore you should
exert your utmost energy.”
I set out on a voyage to Istanbul, the center of the Islamic
caliphate. Besides my primary duty, I was to learn very well Turkish, the
native language of the Muslims being there. I had already learned in London a
considerable amount of Turkish, Arabic (the language of the Qur’aan) and
Persian, the Iranian language. Yet learning a language was quite different from
speaking that language like its native speakers. While the former skill can be
acquired in a matter of a few years, the latter requires a duration of time several
times as long as this. I had to learn Turkish with all its subtleties lest the
people should suspect me.
I was not anxious that they should suspect me. For Muslims are
tolerant, open-hearted, benevolent, as they have learnt from their Prophet
Muhammad ‘alai-his-salaam’. They are not skeptical like us. After all, at that
time the Turkish government did not have an organization to arrest spies.
After a very tiresome voyage I arrived in Istanbul. I said my
name was Muhammad and began to go to the mosque, Muslims’ temple. I liked the
way Muslims observed discipline, cleanliness and obedience. For a moment I said
to myself: Why are we fighting these innocent people? Is this what our Lord the
Messiah advised us? But I at once recovered from this diabolical [!] thought,
and decided to carry out my duty in the best manner.
In Istanbul I met an old scholar named “Ahmed Efendi.” With his
elegant manners, open-heartedness, spiritual limpidity, and benevolence, none
of our religious men I had seen could have equalled him. This person endeavored
day and night to make himself like the Prophet Muhammad. According to him,
Muhammad was the most perfect, the highest man. Whenever he mentioned his name
his eyes would become wet. I must have been very lucky, for he did not even ask
who I was or where I was from. He would address me as “Muhammad Efendi.” He
would answer my questions and treat me with tenderness and with compassion. For
he considered me a guest who had come to Istanbul to work in Turkey and to live
in the shadow of the Khaleefa, the representative of the Prophet Muhammad.
Indeed, this was the pretext I used to stay in Istanbul
One day I said to Ahmed Efendi: “My parents are dead. I don’t
have any brothers or sisters, and I haven’t inherited any property. I came to
the center of Islam to work for a living and to learn Qur’aan al-kereem and the
Sunnat, that is, to earn both my worldly needs and my life in the Hereafter.”
He was very delighted with these words of mine, and said, “You deserve to be
respected for these three reasons.” I am writing down exactly what he said:
“1- You are a Muslim. All Muslims are brothers.
2- You are a guest. Rasoolullah ‘sall-allaahu alaihi wa sallam’
declared: ‘Offer kind hospitality to your guests!’
3- You want to work. There is a hadeeth-i shereef stating that
‘a person who works is beloved to Allah.’ “
These words pleased me very much. I said to myself, “Would that
there were such bright truths in Christianity, too! It’s a shame there aren’t
any.” What surprised me was the fact that Islam, such a noble religion as it
was, was being degenerated in the hands of these conceited people who were
quite unaware of what was going on in life.
I said to Ahmed Efendi that I wanted to learn Qur’aan al-kereem.
He replied that he would teach me with pleasure, and began to teach me (Faatiha
soora). He would explain the meanings as we read. I had great difficulty
pronouncing some words. In two years’ time I read through the whole Qur’aan
al-kereem. Before each lesson he would make ablution himself and also command
me to make ablution. He would sit towards the qibla (Ka’ba) and then begin
What Muslims call ablution consisted of a series of washings, as
1) Washing the face;
2) Washing the right arm from fingers to elbows;
3) Washing the left arm from fingers to elbows;
4) Making masah of (moistening both hands and rubbing them
gently on) the head, backs of ears, (back of) neck;
5) Washing both feet.
Having to use the miswaak vexed me very much. “Miswaak” is a
twig with which they (Muslims) clean their mouth and teeth. I thought this
piece of wood was harmful for the mouth and teeth. Sometimes it would hurt my
mouth and cause bleeding. Yet I had to use it. For, according to them, using
the “miswaak” was a muakkad sunnat of the Prophet. They said this wood was very
useful. Indeed, the bleeding of my teeth came to an end. And the foul breath
that I had till that time, and which most British people have, was gone.
During my stay in Istanbul I spent the nights in a room I had
rented from a man responsible for the service in a mosque. This servant’s name
was “Marwaan Efendi”. Marwaan is the name of one of the Sahaaba (Companions) of
the Prophet Muhammad. The servant was a very nervous man. He would boast about
his name and tell me that if I should have a son in the future I should “name
him Marwaan, because Marwaan is one of Islam’s greatest warriors.”
“Marwaan Efendi” would prepare the evening dinner. I would not
go to work on Friday, a holiday for Muslims. On the other days of the week I
worked for a carpenter named Khaalid, being paid on a weekly basis. Because I
worked part time, from morning till noon, that is, he would give me half the
wage he gave the other employees. This carpenter would spend much of his free
time telling about the virtues of “Khaalid bin Waleed.” Khaalid bin Waleed, one
of the Sahaaba of the Prophet Muhammad, is a great mujaahid (a warrior for
Islam). He accomplished various Islamic conquests. Yet his (Khaalid bin
Waleed’s) dismissal from office by ‘Umar bin Hattaab during the latter’s
caliphate chafed the carpenter’s heart(2)*.
“Khaalid”, the carpenter for whom I worked, was an immoral and
extremely neurotic person. He somehow trusted me very much. I do not know why,
but perhaps it was because I always obeyed him. He ignored the Sharee’at
(Islaam’s commandments) in his secret manners. Yet when he was with his friends
he would display obedience to the commandments of the Sharee’at. He would
attend the Friday prayers, but I am not sure about the other (daily) prayers.
I would have breakfast in the shop. After work I would go to the
mosque for noon prayer and would stay there till afternoon prayer. After the
afternoon prayer I would go to Ahmed Efendi’s place, where he would teach me
such lessons as (reading) Qur’aan al-kereem, Arabic and Turkish languages for
two hours. Every Friday I would give him my weekly earnings because he taught
me very well. Indeed, he taught me very well how to read Qur’aan al-kereem,
requirements of the Islamic religion and the subtleties of Arabic and Turkish
When “Ahmed Efendi” knew that I was single, he wanted to marry
me to one of his daughters. I refused his offer. But he insisted, saying that
marriage is a sunnat of the Prophet’s and the Prophet had stated that “A person
who turns away from my sunnat is not with me.” Apprehending that this event
might put an end to our personal dealings, I had to lie to him, saying that I
lacked sexual power. Thus I ensured the continuance of our acquaintance and
When my two-year stay in Istanbul was over, I told “Ahmed
Efendi” I wanted to go back home. He said, “No, don’t go. Why are you going?
You can find anything you might look for in Istanbul. Allaahu ta’aalaa has
given both the religion and the world at the same time in this city. You say
that your parents are dead and you have no brothers or sisters. Why don’t you
settle down in Istanbul?…” “Ahmed Efendi” had formed a compulsive dependence
upon my company. For this reason he did not want to part company with me and
insisted that I should make my home in Istanbul. But my patriotic sense of duty
compelled me to go back to London, to deliver a detailed report concerning the
center of the caliphate, and to take new orders.
Throughout my stay in Istanbul I sent reports of my observations
monthly to the Ministry of Colonies. I remember asking in one of my reports
what I was to do should the person I was working for ask me to practice sodomy
with him. The reply was: You can do it if it will help you attain your goal. I
was very much indignant over this answer. I felt as if the whole world had
fallen down on my head. I already knew that this vicious deed was very common
in England. Yet it had never occurred to me that my superiors would command me
to commit it. What could I do? I had no other way than to empty the drug to the
dregs. So I kept quiet and went on with my duty.
As I said farewell to “Ahmed Efendi”, his eyes became wet and he
said to me, “My son! May Allaahu ta’aalaa be with you! If you should come back
to Istanbul and see that I am dead, remember me. Say the (soora) Faatiha for my
soul! We will meet on the Judgement Day in front of ‘Rasoolullah’.” Indeed, I
felt very sad, too; so much so that I shed warm tears. However, my sense of
duty was naturally stronger.
My friends had returned to London before I did and they had
already received new commands from the Ministry. I, too, was given new commands
upon returning. Unfortunately, only six of us were back.
One of the other four people, the secretary said, had become a
Muslim and remained in Egypt. Yet the secretary was still glad because, he
said, he (the person who had remained in Egypt) had not betrayed any secrets.
The second one had gone to Russia and remained there. He was Russian in origin.
The secretary was very sorry about him, not because he had gone back to his
homeland, but because perhaps he had been spying on the Ministry of Colonies
for Russia and had gone back home because his mission had been over. The third
one, as the secretary related, had died of plague in a town named “Imara” in
the neighborhood of Baghdaad. The fourth person had been traced by the Ministry
up to the city of San’aa in the Yemen and they had received his reports for one
year, and thereafter his reporting had come to an end and no trail of him had
been found despite all sorts of efforts. The Ministry put down the
disappearance of these four men as a catastrophe. For we are a nation with
great duties versus a small population. We therefore do very fine calculations
on every man.
After a few of my reports, the secretary held a meeting to
scrutinize the reports given by four of us. When my friends submitted their
reports pertaining to their tasks, I, too, submitted my report. They took some
notes from my report. The Minister, the secretary, and some of those who
attended the meeting praised my work. Nevertheless I was the third best. The
first grade was won by my friend “George Belcoude”, and “Henry Fanse” was the
I had doubtlessly been greatly successful in learning Turkish
and Arabic languages, the Qur’aan and the Sharee’at. Yet I had not managed to
prepare for the Ministry a report revealing the weak aspects of the Ottoman
Empire. After the two-hour meeting, the secretary asked me the reason for my
failure. I said, “My essential duty was to learn languages and the Qur’aan and
the Sharee’at. I could not spare time for anything in addition. But I shall
please you this time if you trust me.” The secretary said I was certainly
successful but he wished I had won the first grade. (And he went on):
“O Hempher, your next mission comprises these two tasks:
1- To discover Muslims’ weak points and the points through which
we can enter their bodies and disjoin their limbs. Indeed, this is the way to
beat the enemy.
2- The moment you have detected these points and done what I
have told you to, [in other words, when you manage to sow discord among Muslims
and set them at loggerheads with one another], you will be the most successful
agent and earn a medal from the Ministry.”
I stayed in London for six months. I married my paternal first
cousin, “Maria Shvay”. At that time I was 22 years old, and she was 23. “Maria
Shvay was a very pretty girl, with average intelligence and an ordinary
cultural background. The happiest and the most cheerful days of my life were
those that I spent with her. My wife was pregnant. We were expecting our new
guest, when I received the message containing the order that I should leave for
Receiving this order at a time while I was awaiting the birth of
my son made me sad. However, the importance I attached to my country, doubled
with my ambition to attain fame by being chosen the best one among my
colleagues, was above my emotions as a husband and as a father. So I accepted
the task without hesitation. My wife wanted me to postpone the mission till
after the child’s birth. Yet I ignored what she said. We were both weeping as
we said farewell to each other. My wife said, “Don’t stop writing to me! I
shall write you letters about our new home, which is as valuable as gold.”
These words of hers stirred up storms in my heart. I almost cancelled the
travel. Yet I managed to take control of my emotions. Extending my farewell to
her, I left for the ministry to receive the final instructions.
Six months later I found myself in the city of Basra, Iraq. The
city people were partly Sunnite and partly Shiite. Basra was a city of tribes
with a mixed population of Arabs, Persians and a relatively small number of
Christians. It was the first time in my life that I met with the Persians. By
the way, let me touch upon Shi’ism and Sunnism.
Shiites say that they follow ‘Alee bin Aboo Taalib, who was the
husband of Muhammad’s ‘alaihis-salaam’ daughter Faatima and at the same time
Muhammad’s ‘alaihis-salaam’ paternal first cousin. They say that Muhammad
‘alaihis-salaam’ appointed Alee, and the twelve imaams, ‘Alee’s descendants to
succeed him as the Khaleefa.
In my opinion, the Shi’ees are right in the matter pertaining to
the caliphate of ‘Alee, Hasan, and Huseyn. For, as far as I understand from the
Islamic history, Alee was a person with the distinguished and high
qualifications required for caliphate. Nor do I find it alien for Muhammad
‘alaihis-salaam’ to have appointed Hasan and Huseyn as Khaleefas. What makes me
suspect, however, is Muhammad’s ‘alaihis-salaam’ having appointed Huseyn’s son
and eight of his grandsons as Khaleefas. For Huseyn was a child at Muhammad’s
‘alaihis-salaam’ death. How did he know he would have eight grandsons. If
Muhammad ‘alaihis-salaam’ was really a Prophet, it was possible for him to know
the future by being informed by Allaahu ta’aalaa, as the Messiah had divined
about the future. Yet Muhammad’s ‘alaihis-salaam’ Prophethood is a matter of
doubt to us Christians.
Muslims say that “There are many proofs for Muhammad’s
‘alaihis-salaam’ Prophethood. One of them is the Qur’aan (Koran).” I have read
the Qur’aan. Indeed, it is a very high book. It is even higher than the Torah
(Taurah) and the Bible. For it contains principles, regulations, moral rules,
It has been a wonder to me how an illiterate person such as
Muhammad ‘alaihis-salaam’ could have brought such a lofty book, and how could
he have had all those moral, intellectual and personal qualifications which
could not be possessed even by a man who has read and travelled very much. I
wonder if these facts were the proofs for Muhammad’s ‘alaihis-salaam’
I always made observations and research in order to elicit the
truth about Muhammad’s ‘alaihis-salaam’ Prophethood. Once I brought out my
interest to a priest in London. His answer was fanatical and obdurate, and was
not convincing at all. I asked Ahmed Efendi several times when I was in Turkey,
yet I did not receive a satisfactory answer from him, either. To tell the
truth, I avoided asking Ahmed Efendi questions directly related to the matter
lest they should become suspicious about my espionage.
I think very much of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salaam’. No doubt, he is
one of Allah’s Prophets about whom we have read in books. Yet, being a
Christian, I have not believed in his Prophethood yet. It is doubtless that he
was very much superior to geniuses.
The Sunnites, on the other hand, say that “After the Prophet’s
passing away, Muslims considered Aboo Bekr and ‘Umar and ‘Uthmaan and ‘Alee
suitable for the caliphate.”
Controversies of this sort exist in all religions, most
abundantly in Christianity. Since both ‘Umar and ‘Alee are dead today,
maintaining these controversies would serve no useful purpose. To me, if
Muslims are reasonable, they should think of today, not of those very old
One day in the Ministry of Colonies I made a reference to the
difference between the Sunnites and the Shiites, saying, “If Muslims knew
something about life, they would resolve this Shiite-Sunnite difference among
themselves and come together.” Someone interrupted me and remonstrated, “Your
duty is to provoke this difference, not to think of how to bring Muslims
Before I set out for my travel to Iraq, the secretary said, “O
Hempher, you should know that there has been natural differences among human
beings since God created Abel and Cain. These controversies shall continue
until the return of the Messiah. So is the case with racial, tribal,
territorial, national, and religious controversies.
“Your duty this time is to diagnose these controversies well and
to report to the ministry. The more successful you are in aggravating the
differences among Muslims the greater will be your service to England.
“We, the English people, have to make mischief and arouse schism
in all our colonies in order that we may live in welfare and luxury. Only by
means of such instigations will we be able to demolish the Ottoman Empire.
Otherwise, how could a nation with a small population bring another nation with
a greater population under its sway? Look for the mouth of the chasm with all
your might, and get in as soon as you find it. You should know that the Ottoman
and Iranian Empires have reached the nadir of their lives. Therefore, your
first duty is to instigate the people against the administration! History has
shown that ‘The source of all sorts of revolutions is public rebellions.’ When
the unity of Muslims is broken and the common sympathy among them is impaired,
their forces will be dissolved and thus we shall easily destroy them.”
When I arrived in Basra, I settled in a mosque. The imaam of the
mosque was a Sunnite person of Arabic origin named Shaikh ‘Umar Taaee. When I
met him I began to chat with him. Yet he suspected me at the very beginning and
subjected me to a shower of questions. I managed to survive this dangerous chat
as follows: “I am from Turkey’s Igdir region. I was a disciple of Ahmed Efendi
of Istanbul. I worked for a carpenter named Khaali (Haalid).” I gave him some
information about Turkey, which I had acquired during my stay there. Also, I
said a few sentences in Turkish. The imaam made an eye signal to one of the
people there and asked him if I spoke Turkish correctly. The answer was
positive. Having convinced the imaam, I was very happy. Yet I was wrong. For a
few days later, I saw to my disappointment that the imaam suspected that I was
a Turkish spy. Afterwards, I found out that there was some disagreement and
hostility between him and the governor appointed by the (Ottoman) Sultan.
Having been compelled to leave Shaikh ‘Umar Efendi’s mosque, I
rented a room in an inn for travellers and foreigners and moved there. The
owner of the inn was an idiot named Murshid Efendi. Every morning he would
disturb me by knocking hard at my door to wake me up as soon as the adhaan for
morning prayer was called. I had to obey him. So I would get up and perform the
morning prayer. Then he would say, “You shall read Qur’aan-al kereem after
morning prayer.” When I told him that it was not fard (an act commanded by
Islam) to read Qur’aan al-kereem and asked him why he should insist so much, he
would answer, “Sleeping at this time of day will bring poverty and misfortune
to the inn and the inmates.” I had to carry out this command of his. For he
said otherwise he would send me out of the inn. Therefore, as soon as the
adhaan was called, I would perform morning prayer and then read Qur’aan
al-kereem for one hour.
One day Murshid Efendi came to me and said, “Since you rented
this room misfortunes have been befalling me. I put it down to your
ominousness. For you are single. Being single (unmarried) portends ill omen.
You shall either get married or leave the inn.” I told him I did not have
property enough to get married. I could not tell him what I had told Ahmed
Efendi. For Murshid Efendi was the kind of person who would undress me and
examine my genitals to see whether I was telling the truth.
When I said so, Murshid Efendi reproved me, saying, “What a weak
belief you have! Haven’t you read Allah’s aayat purporting, If they are poor,
Allaahu ta’aalaa will make them rich with His kindness’?” I was stupefied. At
last I said, “All right, I shall get married. But are you ready to provide the
necessary money? Or can you find a girl who will cost me little?”
After reflecting for a while, Murshid Efendi said, “I don’t
care! Either get married by the beginning of Rajab month, or leave the inn.”
There were only twenty-five days before the beginning of the month of Rajab.
Incidentally, let me mention the Arabic months; Muharram, Safar,
Rabi’ul-awwal, Rabi’ul-aakhir, Jemaaziy-ul-awwal, Jemaaziy-ul-aakhir, Rajab,
Sha’baan, Ramadaan, Shawwaal, Zilqa’da, Zilhijja. Their months are neither more
than thirty days, nor below twenty-nine. They are based on lunar calculations.
Taking a job as an assistant to a carpenter, I left Murshid
Efendi’s inn. We made an agreement on a very low wage, but my lodging and food
were to be at the employer’s expense. I moved my belongings to the carpenter’s
shop well before the month of Rajab. The carpenter was a manly person. He
treated me as if I were his son. He was a Shiite from Khorassan, Iran, and his
name was Abd-ur- Ridaa. Taking the advantage of his company, I began to learn
Persian. Every afternoon Iranian Shiites would meet at his place and talk on
various subjects from politics to economy. Most often than not they would speak
ill of their own government and also of the Khaleefa in Istanbul. Whenever a
stranger came in they would change the subject and begin to talk on personal
They trusted me very much. However, as I found out later on,
they though I was an Azerbaijani because I spoke Turkish.
From time to time a young man would call at our carpenter’s
shop. His attirement was that of a student doing scientific research, and he understood
Arabic, Persian, and Turkish. His name was Muhammad bin Abd-ul-wahhaab Najdee.
This youngster was an extremely rude and very nervous person. While abusing the
Ottoman government very much, he would never speak ill of the Iranian
government. The common ground which made him and the shop-owner Abd-ur-Ridaa so
friendly was that both were inimical towards the Khaleefa in Istanbul. But how
was it possible that this young man, who was a Sunnee, understood Persian and
was friends with Abd-ur-Ridaa, who was a Shi’ee? In this city Sunnites
pretended to be friendly and even brotherly with Shiites. Most of the city’s
inhabitants understood both Arabic and Persian. And most people understood
Turkish as well.
Muhammad of Najd was a Sunnee outwardly. Although most Sunnites
censured Shiites, in fact, they say that Shiites are disbelievers this man
never would revile Shiites. According to Muhammad of Najd, there was no reason
for Sunnites to adapt themselves to one of the four madh-habs; he would say,
“Allah’s Book does not contain any evidence pertaining to these madh-habs.” He
purposefully ignored the aayet-i-kereemas in this subject and slighted the
Concerning the matter of four madh-habs: A century after the
death of their Prophet Muhammad ‘alaihis- salaam’, four scholars came forward
from among Sunnite Muslims: Aboo Haneefa, Ahmad bin Hanbal, Maalik bin Anas,
and Muhammad bin Idris Shaafi’ee. Some Khaleefas forced the Sunnites to imitate
one of these four scholars. They said no one except these four scholars could
do ijtihaad in Qur’aan al-kereem or in the Sunna. This movement closed the
gates of knowledge and understanding to Muslims. This prohibition of ijtihaad
is considered to have been the reason for Islam’s standstill.
Shiites exploited these erroneous statements to promulgate their
sect. The number of Shiites was smaller than one-tenth that of Sunnites. But
now they have increased and become equal with Sunnites in number. This result
is natural. For ijtihaad is like a weapon. It will improve Islam’s fiqh and
renovate the understanding of Qur’aan al-kereem and Sunna. Prohibition of
ijtihaad, on the other hand, is like a rotten weapon. It will confine the
madh-hab within a certain framework. And this, in its turn, means to close the
gates of inference and to disregard the time’s requirements. If your weapon is
rotten and your enemy is perfect, you are doomed to be beaten by your enemy
sooner or later. I think, the clever ones of the Sunnites will reopen the gate
of ijtihaad in future. If they do not do this, they will become the minority
and the Shiites will receive a majority in a few centuries.
[However, the imaams (leaders) of the four madh-habs hold the
same creed, the same belief. There is no difference among them. Their
difference is only in worships. And this, in turn, is a facility for Muslims.
The Shiites, on the other hand, parted into twelve sects, thus becoming a
rotten weapon. There is detailed information in this respect in the book Milal
The arrogant youngster, Muhammad of Najd, would follow his nafs
(his sensuous desires) in understanding the Qur’aan and the Sunna. He would
completely ignore the views of scholars, not only those of the scholars of his
time and the leaders of the four madh-habs, but also those of the notable
Sahaabees such as Aboo Bakr and ‘Umar. Whenever he came across a Koranic
(Qur’aan) verse which he thought was contradictory with the views of those
people, he would say, “The Prophet said: I have left the Qur’aan and the Sunna
for you.’ He did not say, I have left the Qur’aan, the Sunna, the Sahaaba, and
the imaams of madh-habs for you.’ Therefore, the thing which is fard is to
follow the Qur’aan and the Sunna no matter how contrary they may seem to be to
the views of the madh-habs or to the statements of the Sahaaba and scholars.”
During a dinner conversation at Abd-ur-Ridaa’s place, the
following dispute took place between Muhammad of Najd and a guest from Kum, a
Shiite scholar named Shaikh Jawad:
Shaikh Jawad. Since you accept that ‘Alee was a mujtahid, why
don’t you follow him like Shiites?
Muhammad of Najd Alee is no different from ‘Umar or other
Sahaabees. His statements cannot be of a documentary capacity. Only the Qur’aan
and the Sunna are authentic documents. [The fact is that statements made by any
of the As-haab-i kiraam are of a documentary capacity. Our Prophet commanded us
to follow any one of them].
Shaikh Jawaad Since our Prophet said, “I am the city of
knowledge, and ‘Alee is its gate,” shouldn’t there be difference between ‘Alee
and the other Sahaaba?
Muhammad of Najd, If ‘Alee’s statements were of a documentary
capacity, would not the Prophet have said, “I have left you the Qur’aan, the
Sunna, and ‘Alee”?
Shaikh Jawaad Yes, we can assume that he (the Prophet) said so.
For the stated in a hadeeth-i-shereef, “I leave (behind me) Allah’s Book and my
Ahl-i-Bayt.” And ‘Alee, in his turn, is the greatest member of the Ahl-i-Bayt.
Muhammad of Najd denied that the Prophet had said so.
Shaikh Jawaad confuted Muhammad of Najd with convincing proofs.
However, Muhammad of Najd objected to this and said, “You assert
that the Prophet said, I leave you Allah’s Book and my Ahl-i-Bayt.” Then, what
has become of the Prophet’s Sunna?”
Shaikh Jawad. The Sunna of the Messenger of Allah is the
explanation of the Qur’aan. The Messenger of Allah said, “I leave (you) Allah’s
Book and my Ahl-i-Bayt.” The phrase ‘Allah’s Book’ includes the ‘Sunna’, which
is an explanation of the former.
Muhammad of Najd. Inasmuch as the statements of the Ahl-i-Bayt
are the explanations of the Qur’aan, why should it be necessary to explain it
Shaikh Jawaad When hadrat Prophet passed away, his Ummat
(Muslims) considered that there should be an explanation of the Qur’aan which
would satisfy the time’s requirements. It was for this reason that hadrat
Prophet commanded his Ummat to follow the Qur’aan, which is the original, and
his Ahl-i-Bayt, who were to explain the Qur’aan in a manner to satisfy the
I liked this dispute very much. Muhammad of Najd was motionless
in front of Shaikh Jawaad, like a house-sparrow in the hands of a hunter.
Muhammad of Najd was the sort I had been looking for. For his
scorn for the time’s scholars, his slighting even the (earliest) four
Khaleefas, his having an independent view in understanding the Qur’aan and the
Sunna were his most vulnerable points to hunt and obtain him. So different this
conceited youngster was from that Ahmed Efendi who had taught me in Istanbul!
That scholar, like his predecessors, was reminiscent of a mountain. No power
would be able to move him. Whenever he mentioned the name of Aboo Haneefa, he
would stand up, go and make ablution. Whenever he meant to hold the book of
Hadeeth named Bukhaaree, he would, again, make ablution. The Sunnees trust this
book very much.
Muhammad of Najd, on the other hand, disdained Aboo Haneefa very
much. He would say, “I know better than Aboo Haneefa did.” In addition,
according to him, half of the book of Bukhaaree was wrong.
[As I was translating these confessions of Hempher’s into
Turkish, I remembered the following event: I was a teacher in a high school.
During a lesson one of my students asked, “Sir, if a Muslim is killed in a war,
will he become a martyr?” “Yes, he will,” I said. “Did the Prophet say so?”
“Yes, he did.” “Will he become a martyr if he is drowned in sea, too?” “Yes,”
was my answer. “And in this case he will attain more thawaab.” Then he asked,
“Will he become a martyr if he falls down from an aeroplane?” “Yes, he will,” I
said. “Did our Prophet state these, too?” “Yes, he did.” Upon this, he smiled
in a triumphant air and said, “Sir! Were there aeroplanes in those days?” My
answer to him was as follows: “My son! Our Prophet has ninety-nine names. Each
of his names stands for a beautiful attribute he was endowed with. One of his
names is Jaami’ul-kalim. He would state many facts in one word. For example, he
said, ‘He who falls from a height will become a martyr.’ ” The child admitted
this answer of mine with admiration and gratitude. By the same token, Qur’aan
al-kereem and hadeeth-i-shereefs contain many words, rules, commandments and
prohibitions each of which denotes various other meanings. The scientific work
carried on to explore these meanings and to apply the right ones to the right
cases, is called Ijtihaad. Performing ijtihaad requires having profound
knowledge. For this reason, the Sunnees prohibited ignorant people from doing
ijtihaad. This does not mean to prohibit ijtihaad. After the fourth century of
the Hegiral Era, no scholars were educated so highly as to reach the grade of
an absolute mujtahid [scholar profoundly learned (enough to perform ijtihaad)];
therefore, no one performed ijtihad, which in turn naturally meant the closure
of the gates of ijtihaad. Towards the end of the world, Isaa (Jesus)
‘alaihis-salaam’ shall descend from heaven and Mahdee (the expected Islamic
hero) shall appear; these people shall perform ijtihaad.
Our Prophet ‘sall-allaahu alaihi wa sallam’ stated, “After me
Muslims shall part into seventy-three groups. Only one of these groups shall
enter Paradise.” When he was asked who were to be in that group, he answered,
“Those who adapt themselves to me and my Ashaab.” In another hadeeth-i-shereef
he stated, “My As-haab are like celestial stars. You will attain hidaayat if you
follow any one of them!” In other words, he said, “You will attain the way
leading to Paradise.” A Jew of Yemen, Abdullah bin Saba, by name, instigated
hostility against the As-haab among Muslims. Those ignorant people who believed
this Jew and bore enmity against the As-haab were called Shi’ee (Shiite). And
people who obeyed the hadeeth-shereefs, loved and followed the As-haab-i-kiraam
were called Sunnee (Sunnite).]
I established a very intimate friendship with Muhammad bin
Abd-ul-wahhaab of Najd. I launched a campaign of praising him everywhere. One
day I said to him: “You are greater than ‘Umar and ‘Alee. If the Prophet were
alive now, he would appoint you as his Khaleefa instead of them. I expect that
Islam will be renovated and improved in your hands. You are the only scholar
who will spread Islam all over the world.”
Muhammad the son of Abd-ul-wahhaab and I decided to make a new
interpretation of the Qur’aan; this new interpretation was to reflect only our
points of view and would be entirely contrary to those explanations made by the
Sahaaba, by the imaams of madh-habs and by the mufassirs (deeply learned
scholars specialized in the explanation of the Qur’aan). We were reading the
Qur’aan and talking on some of the aayats. My purpose in doing this was to
mislead Muhammad. After all, he was trying to present himself as a
revolutionist and would therefore accept my views and ideas with pleasure so
that I should trust him all the more.
On one occasion I said to him, “Jihaad (fighting, struggling for
Islam) is not fard.”
He protested, “Why shouldn’t it be despite Allah’s commandment,
‘Make war against unbelievers.’?”
I said, “Then why didn’t the Prophet make war against the
munaafiqs despite Allah’s commandment, ‘Make Jihaad against unbelievers and
munaafiqs.” [On the other hand, it is written in Mawaahibu ladunniyya that
twenty- seven Jihaads were performed against unbelievers. Their swords are
exhibited in Istanbul’s museums. Munaafiqs would pretend to be Muslims. They
would perform namaaz with the Messenger of Allah in the Masjeed-i- Nabawee
during the days. Rasoolullah ‘sall-allaahu alaihi wasallam’ knew them. Yet he
did not say, ” You are a munaafiq,” to any of them. If he had made war against
them and killed them, people would say, “Muhammad ‘alaihis- salaam’ killed
people who believed in him.” Therefore he made verbal Jihaad against them. For
Jihaad, which is fard, is performed with one’s body and/or with one’s property
and/or with one’s speech. The aayat-i-kareema quoted above commands to perform
Jihaad against unbelievers. It does not define the type of the Jihaad to be
performed. For Jihaad against unbelievers must be performed by fighting, and
Jihaad against munaafiqs is to be performed by preaching and advice. This
aayat-i-kereema covers these types of Jihaad].
He said, “The Prophet made Jihaad against them with his speech.”
I said, “Is the Jihaad which is fard (commanded), the one which
is to be done with one’s speech?”
He said, “Rasoolullah made war against the unbelievers.”
I said, “The Prophet made war against the unbelievers in order
to defend himself. For the unbelievers intended to kill him.”
At another time I said to him, “Mut’a nikaah is permissible.”
He objected, “No, it is not.”
I said, “Allah declares, In return for the use you make of them,
give them the mehr you have decided upon’.”
He said, “’Umar prohibited two examples of mut’a practice
existent in his time and said he would punish anyone who practiced it.”
I said, “You both say that you are superior to ‘Umar and follow
him. In addition, ‘Umar said he prohibited it though he knew that the Prophet
had permitted it. Why do you leave aside the Prophet’s word and obey ‘Umar’s
He did not answer. I knew that he was convinced.
I sensed that Muhammad of Najd desired a woman at that moment;
he was single. I said to him, “Come on, let us each get a woman by mut’a
nikaah. We will have a good time with them. He accepted with a nod. This was a
great opportunity for me, so I promised to find a woman for him to amuse
himself. My aim was to ally the timidity he had about people. But he stated it
a condition that the matter be kept as a secret between us and that the woman
not even be told what his name was. I hurriedly went to the Christian women who
had been sent forth by the Ministry of Colonies with the task of seducing the
Muslim youth there. I explained the matter to one of them. She accepted to
help, so I gave her the nickname Safiyya. I took Muhammad of Najd to her house.
Safiyya was at home, alone. We made a one-week marriage contract for Muhammad
of Najd, who gave the woman some gold in the name of “Mehr.” Thus we began to
mislead Muhammad of Najd, Safiyya from within, and I from without.
Muhammad of Najd was thoroughly in Safiyya’s hands now. Besides,
he had tasted the pleasure of disobeying the commandments of the Sharee’at
under the pretext of freedom of ijtihaad and ideas.
The third day of the mut’a nikaah I had a long dispute with him
over that hard drinks were not haraam (forbidden by Islam). Although he quoted
many aayats and hadeeths showing that it was haraam to have hard drinks, I
cancelled all of them and finally said, “It is a fact that Yezeed and the
Umayyad and Abbasid Khaleefas had hard drinks. Were they all miscreant people
and you are the only adherent of the right way? They doubtless knew the Qur’aan
and the Sunna better than you do. They inferred from the Qur’aan and the Sunna
that the hard drink is makrooh, not haraam. Also, it is written in Jewish and
Christian books that alcohol is mubaah (permitted). All religions are Allah’s
commandments. In fact, according to a narrative, ‘Umar had hard drinks until
the revelation of the aayat, ‘You have all given it up, haven’t you?” If it had
been haraam, the Prophet would have chastised him. Since the Prophet did not
punish him, hard drink is halaal.” [The fact is that ‘Umar ‘radiy-allaahu anh’
used to take hard drinks before they were made haraam. He never drank after the
prohibition was declared. If some of the Umayyad and Abbasid Khaleefas took
alcoholic drinks, this would not show that drinks with alcohol are makrooh. It
would show that they were sinners, that they committed haraam. For the
aayat-i-kereema quoted by the spy, as well as other aayat-i-kereemas and
hadeeth-i-shereefs, shows that drinks with alcohol are haraam. It is stated in
Riyaad-un-naasiheen, “Formerly it was permissible to drink wine. Hadrat ‘Umar,
Sa’d ibni Waqqas, and some other Sahaabees used to drink wine. Later the two
hundred and nineteenth aayat of Baqara soora was revealed to declare that it
was a grave sin. Sometime later the forty-second aayat of Nisaa soora was
revealed and it was declared, ‘Do not approach the namaaz when you are drunk!’”
Eventually, the ninety-third aayat of Maaida soora came and wine was made
haraam. It was stated as follows in hadeeth-i- shereefs: “If something would
intoxicate in case it were taken in a large amount, it is haraam to take it
even in a small amount.” and “Wine is the gravest of sins.” and “Do not make
friends with a person who drinks wine! Do not attend his funeral (when he
dies)! Do not form a matrimonial relationship with him!” and “Drinking wine is
like worshipping idols.” and “May Allaahu ta’aalaa curse him who drinks wine,
sells it, makes it, or gives it.”] ***
Muhammad of Najd said, “According to some narratives, ‘Umar
drank alcoholic spirits after mixing it with water and said it was not haraam
unless it had an intoxicating effect. ‘Umar’s view is correct, for it is
declared in the Qur’aan, ‘The devil wants to stir up enmity and grudge among
you and to keep you from doing dhikr of Allah and from namaaz by means of
drinks and gambling. You will give these up now, won’t you?’ Alcoholic spirits
will not cause the sins defined in the aayat when it does not intoxicate.
Therefore, hard drinks are not haraam when they don’t have an intoxicating
I told Safiyya about this dispute we had on drinks and
instructed her to make him drink a very strong spirit. Afterwards, she said, “I
did as you said and made him drink. He danced and united with me several times
that night.” From them on Safiyya and I completely took control of Muhammad of
Najd. In our farewell talk the Minister of Colonies had said to me, “We
captured Spain from the disbelievers [he means Muslims] by means of alcohol and
fornication. Let us take all our lands back by using these two great forces
again.” Now I know how true a statement it was.
One day I broached the topic of fasting to Muhammad of Najd: “It
is stated in the Qur’aan, ‘Your fasting is more auspicious for you.’ It is not
stated that fasting is fard (a plain commandment). Then, fasting is sunna, not
fard, in the Islamic religion.” He protested and said, “Are you trying to lead
me out of my faith?” I replied, “One’s faith consists of the purity of one’s
heart, the salvation of one’s soul, and not committing a transgression against
others’ rights. Did not the Prophet state, ‘Faith is love’? Did not Allah
declare in Qur’aan al-kereem, ‘Worship thine Rab (Allah) until yaqeen comes to
thee? Then, when one has attained yaqeen pertaining to Allah and the Day of
Judgement and beautified one’s heart and purified one’s deeds, one will become
the most virtuous of mankind.” He shook his head in reply to these words of
Once I said to him, “Namaaz is not fard.” “How is it not fard?”
“Allah declares in the Qur’aan, ‘Perform namaaz to remember Me.’ Then, the aim
of namaaz is to remember Allah. Therefore, you might as well remember Allah
without performing namaaz.”
He said, “Yes. I have heard that some people do dhikr of Allah
instead of performing namaaz.’ I was very much pleased with this statement of
his. I tried hard to develop this notion and capture his heart. Then I noticed
that he did not attach much importance to namaaz and was performing it quite
sporadically. He was very negligent especially with the morning prayer. For I
would keep him from going to bed by talking with him until midnight. So he would
be too exhausted to get up for morning prayer.
I began to pull down the shawl of belief slowly off the
shoulders of Muhammad of Najd. One day I wanted to dispute with him about the
Prophet, too. “From now on, if you talk with me on these topics, our relation
will be spoilt and I shall put an end to my friendship with you.” Upon this I
gave up speaking about the Prophet for fear of ruining all my endeavors once
and for all.
I advised him to pursue a course quite different from those of
Sunnites and Shiites. He favored this idea of mine. For he was a conceited
person. Thanks to Safiyya, I put an halter on him.
On one occasion I said, “I have heard that the Prophet made his
As-haab brothers to one another. Is it true?” Upon his positive reply, I wanted
to know if this Islamic rule was temporary or permanent. He explained, “It is
permanent. For the Prophet Muhammad’s halaal is halaal till the end of the
world, and his haraam is haraam till the end of the world.” Then I offered him
to be my brother. So we were brothers.
From that day on I never left him alone. We were together even
in his travels. He was very important for me. For the tree that I had planted
and grown, spending the most valuable days of my youth, was now beginning to
yield its fruit.
I was sending monthly reports to the Ministry of Colonies in
London. The answers I received were very encouraging and reassuring. Muhammad
of Najd was following the path I had drawn for him.
My duty was to imbue him with feelings of independence, freedom
and skepticism. I always praised him, saying that a brilliant future was
One day I fabricated the following dream: “Last night I dreamed
of our Prophet. I addressed him with the attributes I had learnt from hodjas.
He was seated on a dais. Around him were scholars that I did not know. You
entered. Your face was as bright as haloes. You walked towards the Prophet, and
when you were close enough the Prophet stood up and kissed between your both
eyes. He said, ‘You are my namesake, the heir to my knowledge, my deputy in
worldly and religious matters.’ You said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! I am afraid to
explain my knowledge to people.’ ‘You are the greatest. Don’t be afraid,’
replied the Prophet.”
Muhammad bin Abd-ul-Wahhaab was wild with joy when he heard the
dream. He asked several times if what I had told him was true, and received a positive
answer each time he asked. Finally he was sure I had told him the truth. I
think, from then on, he was resolved to publicize the ideas I had imbued him
with and to establish a new sect.
It was on one of those days when Muhammad of Najd and I had
become very intimate friends that I received a message from London ordering me
to leave for the cities of Kerbelaa and Najaf, the two most popular Shiite
centers of knowledge and spirituality. So I had to put an end to my company
with Muhammad of Najd and leave Basra. Yet I was happy because I was sure that
this ignorant and morally depraved man was going to establish a new sect, which
in turn would demolish Islam from within, and that I was the composer of the
heretical tenets of this new sect.
‘Alee, the fourth Khaleefa of the Sunnites, and the first one
according to the Shiites, was buried in Najaf. The city of Koofa, which was a
distance of one fersah (league), i.e., an hour’s walk from Najaf, was the
capital of ‘Alee’s caliphate. When ‘Alee was killed, his sons Hasan and Huseyn
buried him outside Koofa at a place called Najaf today. In the course of time,
Najaf began to grow, while Koofa gradually fell into decay. The Shiite men of
religion came together in Najaf. Houses, markets, madrasas (Islamic schools and
universities) were built.
The Khaleefa in
Istanbul was kind and generous to them for the following reasons:
1- The Shiite administration in Iran was supporting the Shiites. The Khaleefa’s
interfering with them would cause tension between the states, which in turn
could lead to warfare.
2- The inhabitants of Najaf included a number of armed tribes supporting the
Shiites. Although they did not have much significance in terms of weaponry and
organization, it would be unwise for the Khaleefa to run the risk of getting
into trouble with them.
3- The Shiites in Najaf had authority over the Shiites all over
the world, particularly those in Africa and India. If the Khaleefa disturbed
them, all the Shiites would rise against him.
Huseyn bin ‘Alee, the Prophet’s grandson, i.e., his daughter
Faatima’s son, was martyred in Kerbelaa. The people of Iraq had sent for Huseyn
in Medina and invited him to Iraq to elect him their Khaleefa. Huseyn and his
family were in the territory called Kerbelaa when the Iraqis gave up their
former intention and, acting upon the order given by Yazeed bin Muaawiya, the
Umayyad Khaleefa living in Damascus, set out with the intention of arresting
him. Huseyn and his family put up a heroic last-ditch fight against the Iraqi
army. The battle ended in their death, so the Iraqi army was the winning side.
Since that day, the Shiites have accepted Kerbelaa as their spiritual center,
so that Shiites from all over the world come here and form such a huge crowd
that our religion of Christianity does not have a likeness to it.
Kerbelaa, a Shiite city, contains Shiite madrasas. This city and
Najaf support each other. Upon receiving the order to go to these two cities, I
left Basra for Baghdad, and thence to a city named ‘Hulla’ situated alongside
The Tigris and Euphrates come from Turkey, cut through Iraq, and
flow into the Persian Gulf. Iraq’s agriculture and welfare are due to these two
When I was back in London, I proposed to the Ministry of
Colonies that a project could be drawn up to change the beds of these two
rivers in order to make Iraq accept our proposals. When the water was cut off,
Iraq would have to satisfy our demands.
From Hulla to Najaf I travelled in the guise of an Azerbaijani
tradesman. Establishing close friendships with Shiite men of religion, I began
to mislead them. I joined their circles of religious instruction. I saw that
they did not study science like the Sunnites, nor did they have the beautiful
moral qualities possessed by the Sunnites. For example:
1- They were extremely inimical towards the Ottoman State. For
they were Shiites and the Turks were Sunnites. They said that the Sunnites were
2- The Shiite scholars were entirely absorbed in religious
teachings and had very little interest in worldly knowledge, as was the case
with priests during the period of standstill in our history.
3- They were quite unaware of Islam’s inner essence and sublime
character, nor did they have the smallest notion of the time’s scientific and
I said to myself: What a wretched sort of people these Shiites
are. They are sound asleep when the whole world is awake. One day a flood will
come and take them all away. Several times I attempted to entice them to revolt
against the Khaleefa. Unfortunately, no one would even listen to me. Some of
them laughed at me as though I had told them to destroy the earth. For they
looked on the Khaleefa as a fortress impossible to capture. According to them,
they would get rid of the caliphate with the advent of the promised Mahdi.
According to them, Mahdi was their twelfth imaam, who was a
descendant of Islam’s Prophet and who disappeared in the Hijree year 255. They
believed he was still alive and would one day reappear and rescue the world
from this state of utter cruelty and injustice, filling it with justice.
It is consternating! How come these Shiite people believe in
these superstitions! It was like the superstitious doctrine, “Jesus Christ will
come back and fill the world with justice,” held by our Christians.
One day I said to one of them: “Isn’t it fard for you to prevent
injustice like the Islamic Prophet did?” His reply was: “He managed to prevent
injustice because Allah helped him.” When I said, “It is written in the
Qur’aan, If you help Allah’s religion, He will help you in return.’ “If you
revolt against the torture of your shaahs, Allah will help you” He answered,
“You are a tradesman. These are scientific matters. You cannot understand
The mausoleum of Alee the Emeer-ul-mu’mineen was profusely
decorated. It had a splendid yard, a gold-covered dome, and two tall minarets.
Every day great numbers of Shiites visited this mausoleum. They performed namaaz
in jamaa’at in it. Every visitor first stooped in front of the threshold,
kissed it, and then greeted the grave. They asked for permission and then
entered. The mausoleum had a vast yard, which contained numerous rooms for men
of religion and visitors.
There were two mausoleums similar to that of ‘Alee’s in
Kerbelaa. One of them belonged to Huseyn and the other belonged his brother
Abbaas, who had been martyred with him in Kerbelaa. In Kerbelaa the Shiites
repeated the same practices as they did in Najaf. The climate of Kerbelaa was
better than that of Najaf. It was surrounded with graceful orchards and lovely
During my mission to Iraq I met with a scene that gave relief to
my heart. Some events heralded the end of the Ottoman Empire. For one thing,
the governor appointed by the administration in Istanbul was an uneducated and
cruel person. He acted as he wished. The people did not like him. The Sunnites
were uneasy because the governor restricted their freedom and did not value
them, and the Shiites felt indignant over being governed by a Turk while among
them there were sayyeds and shareefs, the Prophet’s descendants, who would have
been a much better choice for governorship.
The Shiites were in an utterly woebegone situation. They lived
in squalid and dilapidated environments. The roads were not safe. Highwaymen
always awaited caravans, and attacked whenever they saw that there were no
soldiers escorting them. For this reason, convoys would not set out unless the
government would appoint a detachment to escort them.
The Shiite tribes were mostly warlike with one another. They
killed and plundered one another daily. Ignorance and illiteracy were
dreadfully widespread. This state of the Shiites reminded me of the time when
Europe had been under an ecclesiastical invasion. With the exclusion of the
religious leaders living in Najaf and Kerbelaa and a small minority, who were
their votaries, not even one out of every thousand Shiites knew how to read or
The economy had collapsed entirely, and the people were
suffering utter poverty. The administrative system was quite out of order. The
Shiites committed treasons against the government.
The State and the people viewed each other with suspicion. As a
result, there was no mutual aid between them. The Shiite religious leaders,
totally given to vituperating the Sunnites, had already relinquished knowledge;
business, religious and worldly alike.
I stayed in Kerbelaa and in Najaf for four months. I suffered a
very serious illness in Najaf. I felt so bad that I completely gave up hope of
recovery. My illness lasted three weeks. I went to a doctor. He gave me a
prescription. Using the medicine, I began to recover. Throughout my illness I
stayed in an underground room. Because I was ill, my host prepared my medicine
and food in return for an insignificant sum of money and expected great thawaab
for serving me. For I was, so to speak, a visitor of ‘Alee the
Emeer-ul-mu’mineen. The doctor advised me to have only chicken broth during the
first few days. Later on he permitted me to eat chicken as well. The third week
I had rice soup. After becoming well again I left for Baghdad. I prepared a
report of one hundred pages on my observations in Najaf, Hulla, and Baghdad and
while on the way. I submitted the report to the Baghdad representative of the
Ministry of Colonies. I waited for the Ministry’s order on whether I should
remain in Iraq or return to London.
I wished to go back to London. For I had been abroad for a long
time. I missed my homeland and my family. Especially, I wanted to see my son
Rasputin, who had been born after my departure. For this reason, I appended to
my report a petition for permission to return to London for a short time at
least. I wanted to give an oral report of impressions about my three years’
mission in Iraq and to get some rest in the meantime. The Iraq representative
of the Ministry advised me not to call on him often lest I should arouse
suspicion. He also advised to rent a room in one of the inns alongside the
Tigris River, and said, “I shall inform you of the Ministry’s answer when we
receive the mail from London.” During my stay in Baghdad I observed the
spiritual distance between Istanbul, the capital of the caliphate, and Baghdad.
When I left Basra for Kerbelaa and Najaf, I was very much
anxious that Muhammad of Najd would swerve from the direction I had led him.
For he was an extremely unstable and nervous person. I feared that the aims I
had built upon him might be spoilt.
As I left him he was thinking of going to Istanbul. I did my
best to dissuade him from the notion. I said, “I am very anxious that when you
go there you may make a statement whereby they will pronounce you a heretic and
My apprehension was quite the other way round. I was anxious
that upon going there he should meet profound scholars capable of setting his
fallacies right and converting him to the Sunnee creed and thus all my dreams
should come to naught. For there was knowledge and Islam’s beautiful morality
When I found out that Muhammad of Najd did not want to stay in
Basra, I recommended that he go to Isfahan and Sheeraaz. For these two cities
were lovely. And their inhabitants were Shiites. And Shiites, in their turn,
could not possibly influence Muhammad of Najd. For Shiites were inefficient in
knowledge and ethics. Thus I made it certain that he would not change the
course I had charted for him.
As we parted I said to him, “Do you believe in Taqiyya?” “Yes, I
do,” he replied. “The unbelievers arrested one of the Sahaaba and tormented him
and killed his parents. Upon this he made Taqiyya, that is, he said openly that
he was a polytheist. (When he came back and said what had happened), the
Prophet did not reproach him at all.” I advised him, “When you live among the
Shiites, make Taqiyya; do not tell them that you are Sunnee lest they become a
nuisance for you. Utilize their country and scholars! Learn their customs and
traditions. For they are ignorant and stubborn people.”
As I left, I gave him some money as zakaat. Zakaat is an Islamic
tax collected in order to be dealt out to the needy people. In addition, I gave
him a saddled animal as a present. So we parted.
After my departure I lost contact with him. This made me utterly
uneasy. When we parted we decided that both of us were to return to Basra and
whichever party was back first and did not find the other party was to write a
letter and leave it with Abd-ur-Reedaa.
I stayed in Baghdad for a time. Then, receiving the message
ordering me to return to London, I left. In London, I talked with the secretary
and some officials of the Ministry. I told them of my activities and
observations during my long mission. They rejoiced greatly at the information I
gave about Iraq and said that they were pleased. On the other hand, Safiyya,
the girl friend of Muhammad of Najd, sent a report agreeing with mine. I found
out also that throughout my mission I had been followed by men from the
Ministry. These men also sent reports concurrent with the reports I had sent
and with the account I had given to the secretary.
The secretary made an appointment for me to meet the Minister.
When I visited the Minister, he met me in a manner that he had not shown
towards me upon my arrival from Istanbul. I knew that I occupied an exceptional
place in his heart now.
The minister was very pleased to know that I had obtained
Muhammad of Najd. “He is a weapon our Ministry has been looking for. Give him
all sorts of promises. It would be worth while if you spent all your time
indoctrinating him,” he said. When I said, “I have been anxious about Muhammad
of Najd. He may have changed his mind,” he replied, “Don’t worry. He has not
given up the ideas he had when you left him. The spies of our Ministry met him
in Isfahan and reported to our Ministry that he had not changed.” I said to
myself, “How could Muhammad of Najd reveal his secrets to a stranger?” I did
not dare to ask this question to the Minister. However, when I met Muhammad of
Najd later, I found out that in Isfahan a man named Abd-ul-kereem had met him
and ferreted out his secrets by saying, “I am Shaikh Muhammad’s [meaning me]
brother. He told me all that he knew about you.”
Muhammad of Najd said to me, “Safiyya went with me to Isfahan
and we cohabited with mut’a nikaah for two more months. Abd-ul-kereem
accompanied me to Sheeraaz and found me a woman named Asiya, who was prettier
and more attractive than Safiyya. Making mut’a nikaah with that woman, I spent
the most delightful moments of my life with her.”
I found out later that Abd-ul-kereem was a Christian agent
living in the Jelfa district of Isfahan and working for the Ministry. And
Asiya, a Jewess living in Sheeraaz, was another agent for the Ministry. All
four of us coordinated to train Muhammad of Najd in such a way that in future
he would do what was excepted from him in the best way.
When I related the events in the presence of the Minister, the
secretary, and two other members of the Ministry whom I did not know, the
Minister said to me, “You have deserved to receive the greatest award of the
Ministry. For you are the best one among the most significant agents of the
ministry. The secretary will tell you some State secrets, which will help you
in your mission.”
Then they gave me a ten-day leave during which I could see my
family. So I went home right away and spent some of my sweetest moments with my
son, who resembled me very much. My son spoke a few words, and walked so
elegantly that I felt as if he were a piece from my own body. I spent this
ten-day leave so cheerfully, so happily. I felt as if I were going to fly from
joy. It was such a great pleasure to be back home, to be with my family. During
this ten-day leave I visited my old paternal aunt, who loved me very much. It
was wise of me to visit my paternal aunt. For she passed away after my
departure for my third mission. I felt so sad about her decease.
This ten-day leave elapsed as fast as an hour. Whereas cheerful
days such as these go by as quickly as an hour, days of grief seem to take
centuries. I remembered the days when I had suffered that illness in Najaf.
Those days of affliction had seemed like years to me.
When I went to the Ministry to receive new orders, I met the
secretary with this cheerful face and tall stature. He shook my hand so warmly
that his affection was perceptible. He said to me, “With the command of our
minister and the committee in charge of Colonies, I shall tell you two State
secrets. Later you will benefit very much from these two secrets. No one except
a couple of confidential people know these two secrets.”
Holding my hand, he took me to a room in the Ministry. I met
with something very attractive in this room. Ten men were sitting around a
round table. The first man was in the guise of the Ottoman Emperor. He spoke
Turkish and English. The second one was dressed in the attire of the
Shaikh-ul-islaam (Chief of Islamic Matters) in Istanbul. The third one was
dressed in an attirement identical with that of the Shah of Iran. The fourth
one was in the attire of the vizier in the Iranian palace. The fifth one was
dressed like the great scholar leading the Shiites in Najaf. The last three of
these people spoke Persian and English. Each of these five people had a clerk
sitting beside him to write down whatever they would say. These clerks were
imparting to the five men the information collected by spies about their
archetypes in Istanbul, Iran, and Najaf.
The secretary said, “These five people represent the five people
there. In order to know what their archetypes think, we have educated and
trained these people exactly like their archetypes. We intimate the information
we have obtained about their originals in Istanbul, Teheran and Najaf to these
men. And these men, in their turn, imagine themselves to be their originals in
those places. Then we ask them and they answer us. We have determined that the
answers given by these people are seventy-percent agreeable with the answers
that their originals would give.
“If you like, you may ask questions for assessment. You have
already met the scholar of Najaf.” I replied in the affirmative, for I had met
the great Shiite scholar in Najaf and asked him about some matters. Now I
approached his copy and said, “Dear teacher, would it be permissible for us to
wage war against the government because it is Sunnee and fanatical?” He
reflected for a while, and said, “No, it is not permissible for us to wage war
against the government because it is Sunnee. For all Muslims are brothers. We
could declare war on them (Sunnite Muslims) only if they perpetrated cruelty
and persecution on the Ummat (Muslims). And even in this case we would observe
the principles of Amr-i-bi-l-ma’roof and Nahy-i-ani-l-munkar. We would stop
interfering with them as soon as they stopped their persecution.”
I said, “Dear teacher, may I have your opinion concerning the
matter that Jews and Christians are foul?” “Yes, they are foul,” he said. “It
is necessary to keep away from them.” When I asked the reason why, he replied,
“It is done so in retaliation for an insult. For they look on us as
disbelievers and deny our Prophet Muhammad ‘alaihis-salaam’. We therefore
retaliate for this.” I said to him, “Dear teacher, isn’t cleanliness an issue
of eemaan? Despite this fact, the avenues and streets around the Sahn-i-shareef
[the area surrounding hadrat ‘Alee’s mausoleum] are not clean. Even the
madrasas, which are the places of knowledge, cannot be said to be clean.” He
replied, “Yes, it is true; cleanliness is from eemaan. Yet it cannot be helped
because the Shiites are negligent over cleanliness.”
The answers given by this man in the Ministry were precisely
concurrent with the answers I had received from the Shiite scholar in Najaf.
Such accurate identity between this man and the scholar in Najaf amazed me
utterly. In addition, this man spoke Persian.
The secretary said, “If you had met the archetypes of the other
four personages, you would talk to their imitations now and see how identical
they are with their originals.” When I said, “I know how the Shaikh-ul-islaam
thinks. For Ahmad Efendi, my hodja in Istanbul, gave a detailed description of
the Shaikh-ul-islaam to me,” the secretary said, “Then you can go ahead and
talk with his model.”
I went near the Shaikh-ul-islaam’s model and said to him, “Is it
fard to obey the Khaleefa?” “Yes, it is waajib,” he replied. “It is waajib, as
it is fard to obey Allah and the Prophet.” When I asked what evidence he had to
prove this, he answered, “Didn’t you hear about Janaab-i-Allah’s aayat, ‘Obey
Allah, His Prophet, and the Ulul amr from among you’?” I said, “Does this mean
that Allah commands us to obey the Khaleefa Yazeed, who permitted his army to
plunder Medeena and who killed our Prophet’s grandson Huseyn, and Waleed who
drank alcoholic spirits?” His answer was this: “My son! Yazeed was the
Ameer-ul-mu’mineen with Allah’s permission. He did not command the killing of
Huseyn. Do not believe in the Shiite lies! Read the books well! He made a
mistake. Then he made tawba for this (he repented and begged for Allah’s
forgiveness and mercy). He was right about his ordering Medina-i-munawwara
plundered. For the inhabitants of Medina had become quite unbridled and
disobedient. As for Waleed; yes, he was a sinner. It is waajib not to imitate
the Khaleefa, but to obey his commandments compatible with the Sharee’at.” I
had asked these same questions to my hodja Ahmed Efendi and received identical
answers with slight differences. Then I asked the secretary, “What are the
ultimate reasons for preparing these models?” He said, “With this method we are
assessing the mental capacities of the (Ottoman) Sultan and the Muslim
scholars, be they Shi’ee or Sunnee. We are searching for the measures that will
help us cope with them. For instance, if you know what direction the enemy forces
will come from, you will make preparations accordingly, post your forces at
suitable positions, and thus rout the enemy. On the other hand, if you aren’t
sure about the direction of the enemy assault you will spread your forces here
and there in a haphazard way and suffer a defeat. … By the same token, if you
know the evidences Muslims will furnish to prove that their faith, their
madh-hab is right, it will be possible for you to prepare the counter-evidences
to rebut their evidences and shock their belief with those counter-evidences.”
Then he gave me a book of one thousand pages containing the
results of the observations and projects carried out by the aforenamed five
representative men in areas such as military, finance, education, and religion.
He said, “Please read this book and return it to us.” I took the book home with
me. I read through it with utmost attention during my three-week holiday.
The book was of a wonderful sort. For the important answers and
the delicate observations it contained sounded genuine. I think that the
answers given by the representative five men were more than seventy percent
agreeable with the answers that their archetypes would have given. Indeed, the
secretary had said that the answers were seventy percent correct.
Having read the book, I now had more confidence in my State and
I knew for certain that the plans for demolishing the Ottoman Empire in time
shorter than a century had already been prepared. The secretary also said, “In
other similar rooms we have identical tables intended for countries we have
been colonizing as well as for those we are planning to colonize.” When I asked
the secretary where they found such diligent and talented men, he replied, “Our
agents all over the world are providing us intelligence continuously. As you
see, these representatives are experts in their work. Naturally, if you were
furnished with all the information possessed by a particular person, you would
be able to think like him and to make the decisions he would make. For you would
be his substitute now.”
The secretary went on, “So this was the first secret I was
ordered by the Ministry to give you.
“I shall tell you the second secret a month later, when you
return the book of one thousand pages.”
I read the book part by part from the beginning to the end,
focusing all my attention on it. It increased my information about the
Muhammadans. Now I knew how they thought, what their weaknesses were, what made
them powerful, and how to transform their powerful qualities into vulnerable spots.
Muslims’ weak spots as recorded in the book were as follows:
1- The Sunnite-Shiite
controversy; the sovereign-people controversy; the Turkish-Iranian controversy;
the tribal controversy; and the scholars-states controversy.
2- With very few
exceptions, Muslims are ignorant and illiterate.
3- Lack of spirituality,
knowledge, and conscience. 4- They have completely ceased from worldly business
and are absorbed in matters pertaining to the Hereafter.
5- The emperors are
6- The roads are unsafe,
transportation and travels are sporadic.
7- No precaution is
taken against epidemics such as plague and cholera, which kill tens of
thousands of people each year; hygiene is altogether ignored.
8- The cities are in
ruins, and there is no system of supplying water.
9- The administration is
unable to cope with rebels and insurgents, there is a general disorderliness,
rules of the Qur’aan, of which they are so proud, are almost never put into
10- Economical collapse,
poverty, and retrogression.
11- There is not an
orderly army, nor adequate weaponry; and the weapons in stock are classical and
friable. [Are they unaware of the systematic army established by Orhan Ghaazee,
who ascended to the (Ottoman) throne in 726 (C.E. 1326), Yildirim (The Thunderbolt)
Baayezeed Khan’s immaculate army, which routed the great army of crusaders in
Nighbolu in 799 (C.E. 1399)?]
12- Violation of women’s
13- Lack of
environmental health and cleanliness(42).
After citing what was considered as Muslims’ vulnerable spots in
the paragraphs paraphrased above, the book advised to cause Muslims to remain
oblivious of the material and spiritual superiority of their faith, Islam.
Then, it gave the following information about Islam:
1- Islam commands
unity and cooperation and prohibits disunion. It is stated in the Qur’aan,
“Hold fast to Allah’s rope altogether.”
2- Islam commands
being educated and being conscious. It is stated in the Qur’aan, “Travel on the
3- Islam commands to
acquire knowledge. It is stated in a hadeeth, “Learning knowledge is fard for
every Muslim, male and female alike.” 4- Islam commands to work for the world.
It is stated in the Qur’aan, “Some of them: O our Allah! Allot to us whatever is
beautiful both in the world and in the Hereafter.”
5- Islam commands
consultation. It is stated in the Qur’aan, “Their deeds are (done) upon
consultation among themselves.”
6- Islam commands to
build roads. It is stated in the Qur’aan, “Walk on the earth.”
7- Islam commands
Muslims to maintain their health. It is stated in a hadeeth, “Knowledge is
(made up) of four (parts): 1) The knowledge of Fiqh for the maintenance of
faith; 2) The knowledge of Medicine for the maintenance of health; 3) The
knowledge of Sarf and Nahw (Arabic grammar) for the maintenance of language; 4)
The knowledge of Astronomy so as to be aware of the times.”
8- Islam commands
development. It is stated in the Qur’aan, “Allah created everything on the
earth for you.”
9- Islam commands orderliness.
It is stated in the Qur’aan, “Everything is based on calculations, orders.”
10- Islam commands
to be strong economically. It is stated in a hadeeth. “Work for your world as
though you would never die. And work for your hereafter as if you were going to
11- Islam commands
to establish an army equipped with powerful weapons. It is stated in the
Qur’aan, “Prepare as many forces as you can against them.”
12- Islam commands
to observe women’s rights and to value them. It is stated in the Qur’aan, “As
men legally have (rights) over women, so women have rights over them.”
13- Islam commands
cleanliness. It is stated in a hadeeth, “Cleanliness is from eemaan.”
The book recommended to degenerate and to impair the following
1- Islam has negated racial, lingual, traditional, conventional,
and national bigotry.
2- Interest, profiteering, fornication, alcoholic spirits, and pork are
3- Muslims are firmly adherent to their ‘Ulamaa (religious scholars).
4- Most of the Sunnee Muslims accept the Khaleefa as the Prophet’s
representative. They believe that it is fard to show him the same respect as
must be shown to Allah and the Prophet.
5- Jihaad is fard.
6- According to the Shee’ee Muslims, all non-Muslims and Sunnee Muslims are
7- All Muslims believe that Islam is the only true religion. 8- Most Muslims
believe that it is fard to expel the Jews and Christians from the Arab
9- They perform their worships, (such as namaaz, fast, hajj…), in the most beautiful
10- The Shi’ee Muslims believe that it is haraam (forbidden) to build churches
in Muslim countries.
11- Muslims hold fast to the principles of the Islamic belief.
12- The Shi’ee Muslims consider it fard to give one-fifth of the Humus, i.e.
booties taken in Holy War, to the ‘Ulamaa.
13- Muslims raise their children with such education that they are not likely
to abandon the way followed by their ancestors.
14- Muslim women cover themselves so well that mischief can by no means act on
15- Muslims make namaaz in jamaa’at, which brings them together five times
16- Because the Prophet’s grave and those of Alee and other pious Muslims are
sacred according to them, they assemble at these places.
17- There are a number of people descending from the Prophet, [who are called
Sayyeds and Shereefs]; these people who remind of the Prophet and who keep Him
always remain alive in the eyes of Muslims.
18- When Muslims assemble, preachers consolidate their eemaan and motivate them
to do pious acts.
19- It is fard to perform Amr-i-bi-l-ma’roof [Advising piety] and
nahy-i-ani-l-munkar [admonishing against wrongdoing].
20- It is sunnat to marry more than one women in order to contribute to the
increase of Muslim population.
21- Converting one person to Islam is more valuable to a Muslim than possessing
the whole world. 22- The hadeeth, “If a person opens an auspicious way, he will
attain the thawaabs of people who follow that way as well as the thawaab for
having attained it,” is well known among Muslims.
23- Muslims hold the Qur’aan and hadeeths in very profound reverence. They
believe that obeying these sources is the only way of attaining Paradise.
The book recommends to vitiate Muslims’ staunch spots and to
popularize their weaknesses, and it prescribed the methods for accomplishing
It advised the following steps for popularizing their vulnerable
Establish controversies by inducing animosity among disputing groups,
inoculating mistrust, and by publishing literature to further incite controversies.
Obstruct schooling and publications, and burn literature whenever possible.
Make sure that Muslim children remain ignorant by casting various aspersions on
religious authorities and thus preventing Muslim parents from sending their
children to religious schools. [This British method has been very harmful to
Praise Paradise in their presence and convince them that they need not work for
a worldly life. Enlarge the circles of Tasawwuf. Keep them in an unconscious
state by encouraging them to read books advising Zuhd, such as
Ihyaa-ul-’uloom-id-deen, by Ghazaalee, Mesnevee, by Mawlaanaa, and various
books written by Muhyiddeen Arabee.
Wheedle the emperors into cruelty and dictatorship by the following demagogic
falsifications: You are Allah’s shadows on the earth. In fact, Aboo Bakr,
‘Umar, ‘Uthmaan, ‘Alee, Umayyads and Abbasids came to seize power by sheer
force and the sword, and each of them was a sovereign. For example, Aboo Bakr
assumed power with the help of ‘Umar’s sword and by setting fire to the houses
of those who would not obey him, such as Faatima’s house. And ‘Umar became
Khaleefa upon Aboo Bakr’s commendation. ‘Uthmaan, on the other hand, became the
president with ‘Umar’s order. As for ‘Alee; he became head of the State by an
election held among bandits. Muaawiya assumed power by the sword. Then, in the
time of the Umayyads, sovereignty was turned into an inheritance transferred
through paternal chain. So was the case with the Abbasids. These are the
evidences for the fact that in Islam sovereignty is a form of dictatorship.
Delete death penalty for homicide from the penal code. [Death punishment is the
only deterrent to homicide and banditry. Anarchy and banditry cannot be
prevented without death penalty]. Hinder the administration in punishing
highwaymen and robbers. Make sure that traveling is unsafe by supporting and
We can make them lead an unhealthy life with the following scheme: Everything
is dependent on Allah’s foreordination. Medical treatment will have no role in
restoring health. Does not Allah say in the Qur’aan, “My Rab (Allah) makes me
eat and drink. He cures me when I am ill. He alone will kill me and then
resurrect me.” Then, no one will recover from an illness or escape death
outside Allah’s will.
Make the following statements for encouraging cruelty: Islam is a religion of
worship. It has no interest in State matters. Therefore, Muhammad and his
Khaleefas did not have any ministers or laws.
Economic decline is a natural consequence of the injurious activities advised
so far. We can add to the atrophy by rotting the crops, sinking the trade
ships, setting fire to the market places, destroying dams and barrages and thus
leaving agricultural areas and industrial centers under water, and finally by
contaminating their networks of drinking water.
Accustom statesmen to such indulgences as [sex, sports,] alcohol, gambling,
corruption which cause sedition and intriguing, and spending the State property
for their personal advantages. Encourage the civil servants to do things of
this sort and reward those who serve us in this way. Then the book added the
following advice: The British spies assigned this duty must be protected
secretly or openly, and no expense must be spared to rescue the ones arrested
11- Popularize all sorts of
interest. For interest not only ruins national economy, but also accustoms
Muslims to disobeying the Koranic rules. Once a person has violated one article
of law, it will be easy for him to violate the other articles, too. They must
be told that “interest is haraam when in multiples, for it is stated in the
Qur’aan, ‘Do not receive interest in multiples.’Therefore, not every form of
interest is haraam.” [The pay-off time of a loan must not be appointed in
advance. Any extra payment agreed on (at the time of lending) is interest. This
type of interest is a grave sin, be the extra payment stipulated worth only a
dirham. If it is stipulated that the same amount (borrowed) must be repaid
after a certain time, this is interest according to the Hanafee madh-hab. In
sales on credit, time of repayment must be appointed; yet if the debtor cannot
pay off at the appointed time and the time is protracted and an extra payment is
stipulated, this kind of interest is called Mudaa’af. The aayat-i-kareema
quoted above states this type of interest in trade]. 12- Spread false charges
of atrocity against scholars, cast sordid aspersions against them and thus
alienate Muslims from them. We shall disguise some of our spies as them. Then
we shall have them commit squalid deeds. Thus they will be confused with
scholars and every scholar will be looked upon with suspicion. It is a must to
infiltrate these spies into Al-Az-har, Istanbul, Najaf, and Kerbelaa. We shall
open schools, colleges for estranging Muslims from scholars. In these schools
we shall educate Byzantine, Greek and Armenian children and bring them up as
the enemies of Muslims. As for Muslim children; we shall imbue them with the
conviction that their ancestors were ignorant people. In order to make these
children hostile towards Khaleefas, scholars, and statesmen, we shall tell them
about their errors and convince them that they were busy with their sensuous
pleasures, that Khaleefas spent their time having fun with concubines, that
they misused the people’s property, that they did not obey the Prophet in
anything they did.
13- In order to spread the calumniation that Islam abhors womankind, we shall
quote the aayat, “Men are dominant over women,” and the hadeeth, “The woman is
an evil altogether.”
14- Dirtiness is the result of lack of water. Therefore, we must deter the
increasing of the water supplies under various schemes.
The book advised the following steps for destroying Muslims’
1- Induce such
chauvinistic devotions as racism and nationalism among Muslims so as to retract
their attention towards their pre-Islamic heroisms. Rejuvenate the Pharaoh
period in Egypt, the Magi period in Iran, the Babylonian period in Iraq, the
Attila and Dzengiz era[tyrannisms] in the Ottomans. [They contained a long list
on this subject].
2- The following
vices must be done secretly or publicly: Alcoholic spirits, gambling,
fornication, pork, [and fights among sports clubs.] In doing this, Christians,
Jews, Magians, and other non-Muslims living in Muslim countries should be
utilized to a maximum, and those who work for this purpose should be awarded
high salaries by the treasury department of the Ministry of the Commonwealth.
3- Sow suspicion
among them concerning Jihaad; convince them that Jihaad was a temporary
commandment and that it has been outdated.
4- Dispel the notion
that “disbelievers are foul” from the hearts of Shiites. Quote the Koranic
verse, “As the food of those given a (heavenly) Book is halaal for you, so is
your food halaal for them,” and tell them that the Prophet had a Jewish wife
named Safiyya and a Christian wife named Maariya and that the Prophet’s wives
were not foul at all. 5- Imbue Muslims with the belief that “what the Prophet
meant by Islam’ was ‘a perfect religion’ and therefore this religion could be
Judaism or Christianity as well as Islam.” Substantiate this with the following
reasoning: The Qur’aan gives the name ‘Muslim’ to members of all religions. For
instance, it quotes the Prophet Joseph (Yoosuf ‘alaihis-salaam’) as having
invoked, “Kill me as a Muslim,” and the Prophets Ibraaheem and Ismaa’eel as
having prayed, “O our Rab (Allah)! Make us Muslims for Yourself and make a
Muslim people for Yourself from among our offspring,”and the Prophet Ya’qoob as
having said to his sons, “Die only and only as Muslims.”
6- Repeat frequently
that it is not haraam to build churches, that the Prophet and his Khaleefas did
not demolish them, that on the contrary they respected them, that the Qur’aan
states, “If Allah had not dispelled some people by means of others,
monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques wherein Allah’s name is
mentioned very much would have been annihilated (by now),” that Islam respects
temples, that it does not demolish them, and that it prevents those who would
otherwise demolish them.
7- Confuse Muslims
about the hadeeths, “Deport the Jews from the Arabic Peninsula,” and, “Two
religions cannot coexist on the Arabic peninsula.” Say that “If these two
hadeeths were true, the Prophet would not have had a Jew wife and a Christian
one. Nor would he have made an agreement with the Najran Christians.”
8- Try to hamper
Muslims in their worships and make them falter about the usefulness of worships
by saying that “Allah does not need men’s worships.” Prevent them from their
worship of Hajj as well as from any sort of worship that will bring them
together. Likewise, try to obstruct construction of mosques, mausoleums and
madrasas and the restoration of Ka’ba.
9- Mystify the
Shiites about the rule that one-fifth of the ghaneema property taken from the
enemy in combat is to be given to the ‘Ulamaa and explain that this one-fifth
belongs to the ghaneema property taken from (Daar-ul-harb) and that it has nothing
to do with commercial earnings. Then add that “Humus (the one-fifth mentioned
above) is to be given to the Prophet or to the Khaleefa, not to the ‘Ulamaa.
For the ‘Ulamaa are given houses, palaces, animals, and orchards. Therefore, it
is not permissible to give them the (Humus).” 10- Insert heresies into Muslims’
creedal tenets and then criticize Islam for being a religion of terror. Assert
that Muslim countries are retrogressive and that they have undergone shocks,
thus impairing their adherence to Islam. [On the other hand, Muslims
established the greatest and the most civilized empire of the world. They
declined as their adherence to Islam deteriorated].
11- Very important!
Alienate children from their fathers, thus depriving them of their elders’ education.
We shall educate them. Consequently, the moment children have parted from their
fathers’ education, there will no longer be any possibility for them to
maintain contact with their belief, faith, or religious scholars.
12- Provoke the
womenfolk to get rid of their traditional covers. Fabricate such falsifications
as “Covering is not a genuine Islamic commandment. It is a tradition
established in the time of the Abbasids. Formerly, other people would see the
Prophet’s wives and women would join all sorts of social activities.” After
stripping the woman of her traditional cover, tempt the youth towards her and
cause indecencies between them! This is a very effective method for
annihilating Islam. First use non-Muslim women for this purpose. In the course
of time the Muslim woman will automatically degenerate and will begin to follow
13- Exploit every
opportunity to put an end to performing namaaz in jamaa’at by casting
aspersions on the imaams in mosques, by revealing their mistakes, and by sowing
discord and adversity between them and the jamaa’ats (groups of Muslims) who
perform their daily prayers of namaaz behind them.
14- Say that all
mausoleums must be demolished to the ground, that they did not exist in the
Prophet’s time. In addition, deter Muslims from visiting the graves of
Prophets, Khaleefas and pious Muslims by arising doubts about visiting graves.
For instance say, “The Prophet was buried by his mother and Aboo Bekr and ‘Umar
were buried in the cemetery called Baakee’.’Uthmaan’s grave is unknown.
Huseyn’s head was buried at (a place called) Hannana. It is not known where his
body was buried. The graves in Kaazimiyya belong to two caliphs. They do not
belong to Kaazim and Jawaad, two descendants of the Prophet. As to the one in Tus
(city); that grave belongs to Haarun, not to Ridaa, a member of the Ahl-i-Bayt
(the Prophet’s Family). The graves in Samerra belong to the Abbasids. They do
not belong to Haadee, Askeree, and Mahdee, members of the Ahl-i-Bayt. As it is
fard to demolish all the mausoleums and domes in Muslim countries, so is it a
must to bulldoze the cemetery called Baakee’.”
15- Make people feel
skeptical about the fact that Sayyeds are the Prophet’s descendants. Mix
Sayyeds with other people by making non-Sayyeds wear black and green turbans.
Thus people will be perplexed in this matter and will consequently begin to
distrust Sayyeds. Strip religious authorities and Sayyeds of their turbans so
that the Prophetic pedigree will be lost and religious authorities will not be
respected any more. 16- Say that it is fard to demolish the places where
Shiites mourn, that this practice is a heresy and aberration. People should be
prevented from visiting those places, the number of preachers should be
decreased and taxes should be levied on preachers and owners of the places for
17- Under the
pretext of love of freedom, convince all Muslims that “Everyone is free to do
whatever he likes. It is not fard to perform Amr-i-bi-l-ma’roof and
Nahy-i-anil-munkar or to teach the Islamic principles.” [On the contrary, it is
fard to learn and teach Islam. It is a Muslim’s first duty]. In addition, imbue
them with this conviction: “Christians are to remain in their own faith
(Christianity) and Jews are to abide by theirs (Judaism). No one will enter
another person’s heart. Amr-i-ma’roof and Nahy-i-anil-munkar are the Khaleefa’s
18- In order to
impede Muslims from increasing in number, births must be limited and polygamy
must be prohibited. Marriage must be subjected to restrictions. For instance,
it must be said that an Arab cannot marry an Iranian, an Iranian cannot marry
an Arab, a Turk cannot marry an Arab.
19- Make sure to
stop Islamic propagations and conversions to Islam. Broadcast the conception
that Islam is a religion peculiar to the Arabs only. As an evidence for this,
put forward the Qur’aanic verse which reads, “This is a Dhikr for thee and
institutions must be restricted and confined to the State monopoly, to the
extent that individuals must be unable to establish madrasas or other similar
pious institutions. 21- Arouse doubts as to the authenticity of the Qur’aan in
Muslims’ minds; publish Koranic translations containing excisions, additions,
and interpolations, and then say, “The Qur’aan has been defiled. Its copies are
incongruous. A verse one of them contains does not exist in another.” Excise
the verses insulting Jews, Christians and all other non-Muslims and those
commanding Jihaad, Amr-i-bi-l-ma’roof and Nahy-i-anil munkar.Translate the Qur’aan
into other languages such as Turkish, Persian, Indian, thus to prevent Arabic
from being learned and read outside Arabic countries, and again, prevent the
(Ad-haan), (Namaaz), and (Duaa) from being done in Arabic outside Arabic
Likewise, Muslims will be made to feel doubts about hadeeths.
The translations, criticisms and interpolations planned for the Qur’aan should
be applied to hadeeths as well.
When I read through the book, which was entitled How Can We
Demolish Islam, I found it really excellent. It was a peerless guide for the
studies I was going to carry on. When I returned the book to the secretary and
told him that it afforded me great pleasure to read it, he said, “You can be
sure that you are not alone in this field. We have lots of men doing the same
job as you have been carrying on. Our Ministry has assigned over five thousand
men to this mission. The Ministry is considering increasing this number to one
hundred thousand. When we reach this number we shall have brought all Muslims
under our sway and obtained all Muslim countries.”
Sometime later the secretary said: “Good news to you! Our
Ministry needs one century at the most to realize this program. We may not live
to see those happy days, but our children will. What a beautiful saying this
is: I have eaten what others sowed. So I am sowing for others.’ When the
British manage this they will have pleased the whole Christian world and will
have rescued them from a twelve-century-old nuisance.”
The secretary went on as follows: “The crusading expeditions
which continued for centuries were of no use. Nor can the Mongols [armies of
Dzengiz] be said to have done anything to extirpate Islam. For their work was
sudden, unsystematic, and ungrounded. They carried on military expeditions so
as to reveal their enmity. Consequently, they became tired in a short time. But
now our valuable administrators are trying to demolish Islam by means of a very
subtle plan and a long-range patience. We must use military force, too. Yet
this should be the final phase, that is, after we have completely consumed
Islam, after we have hammered it from all directions and rendered it into a
miserable state from which it will never recover again and fight against us.”
The secretary’s final words were these: “Our superiors in Istanbul must have
been very wise and intelligent. They executed our plan precisely. What did they
do? They mixed with the Muhammadans and opened madrasas for their children.
They built churches. They were perfectly successful in popularizing alcoholic
spirits, gambling, indecencies, and breaking them into groups by means of
instigation [and football clubs.] They aroused doubts in the minds of young
Muslims. They inserted controversies and oppositions into their governments.
They spread mischief everywhere. They depraved administrators, directors, and
statesmen by filling their houses with Christian women. With activities of this
sort they broke their forces, shocked their adherence to their faith, corrupted
them morally, and disrupted their unity and communication. Now the time has
come to commence a sudden war and extirpate Islam.”
Having enjoyed the first secret, I was looking forward to
knowing the second secret. Eventually one day the secretary explained the
second secret he had promised. The second secret was a fifty page scheme
prepared for the high ranking officials working in the Ministry for
annihilating Islam altogether within a century’s time. The scheme was comprised
of fourteen articles. The scheme was closely guarded for fear that it might be
obtained by Muslims. The following are the articles of the scheme:
1- We have to form a well-established alliance and an agreement
of mutual help with the Russian Tsar in order to invade Bukhaara, Taajikistaan,
Armenia, Khorasan and its neighborhood. Again, a sound agreement must be
established with Russians in order to invade their neighbor, Turkey.
2- We must establish cooperation with France in demolishing the Islamic world
both from within and from without.
3- We must sow very ardent rows and controversies between the Turkish and
Iranian governments and emphasize nationalistic and racist feelings in both
parties. In addition, all the Muslim tribes, nations and countries neighboring
one another must be set against one another. All the religious sects, including
the extinct ones, must be recovered and set against one another.
4- Parts from Muslim countries must be handed over to non-Muslim communities.
For example, Medina must be given to the Jews, Alexandria to the Christians,
Imaara to the Saaiba, Kermanshah to the Nusayriya group, who have divinized
‘Alee, Mousul to the Yazeedees, the Iranian gulf to Hindus, Tripoli to the Druzis,
Kars to the Alawees, and Masqat to the Khaarijee group. The next step should be
to arm these groups so that each of them will be a thorn on the body of Islam.
Their areas must be widened till Islam has collapsed and perished.
5- A schedule must be concocted to divide the Muslim and Ottoman States into,
as small as possible, local states that are always at loggerheads with one
another. An example of this is today’s India. For the following theory is
common: “Break, and you will dominate,” and “Break, and you will destroy.”
6- It is necessary to adulterate Islam’s essence by adding interpolated
religions and sects into it, and this we must devise in such a subtle manner
that the religions we are to invent should be compatible with the sensuous
tastes and aspirations of the people among whom we are going to spread them. We
shall invent four different religions in the Shiite countries:
1- A religion that divinizes hadrat Huseyn;
2- A religion that divinizes Ja’fer Saadiq;
3- A religion divinizing Mahdi;
4- A religion divinizing Alee Ridaa. The first one is suitable for Kerbelaa,
the second one for Isfahaan, the third one for Samarra, and the fourth one for
Khoraasaan. In the meantime, we must degenerate the existing four Sunnite
madh-habs into four self-standing religions. After doing this, we shall
establish an altogether new Islamic sect in Najd, and then instigate bloody
rows among all these groups. We shall annihilate the books belonging to the
four madh-habs, so that each of these groups will consider themselves to be the
only Muslim group and will look on the other groups as heretics that are to be
7- Seeds of mischief and malice, such as fornication, pederasty,
alcoholic spirits and gambling, will be scattered among Muslims. Non-Muslims
living in the countries concerned will be used for this purpose. A tremendous
army of people of this sort is on requisition for the realization of this goal.
8- We should spare no effort to train and educate vicious leaders and cruel
commanders in Muslim countries, to bring them into power and thus to pass laws
prohibiting obedience to the Sharee’at (religious injunctions). We should put
them to use, to the extent that they should be subservient enough to do
whatever the Ministry (of the Commonwealth) asks them to do, and vice versa.
Through them we should be able to impose our wishes on Muslims and Muslim
countries by using laws as an enforcement. We should establish a social way of
life, an atmosphere wherein obeying the Shari’at will be looked on as a guilt
and worshipping as an act of regression. We should trick Muslims into electing
their leaders from among non-Muslims. For doing this, we should disguise some
of our agents as Islamic authorities and bring them into high positions so that
they may execute our wishes.
9- Do your best to prevent the learning of Arabic. Popularize languages other
than Arabic, such as Persian, Kurdish, and Pushtu (Pashto). Resuscitate foreign
languages in the Arabic countries and popularize the local dialects in order to
annihilate literary, eloquent Arabic, which is the language of the Qur’aan and
10- Placing our men around statesmen, we should gradually make them secretaries
of these statesmen and through them we should carry out the desires of the
Ministry. The easiest way of doing this is the slave trade: First of all we
must adequately train the spies we are to send forth in the guise of slaves and
concubines. Then we must sell them to the close relatives of Muslim statesmen,
for instance, to their children or wives, or to other people liked or respected
by them. These slaves, after we have sold them, will gradually approach the
statesmen. Becoming their mothers and governesses, they will encircle Muslim
statesmen like a bracelet girding a wrist.
11- Missionary areas must be widened so as to penetrate into all social classes
and vocations, especially into such professions as medicine, engineering, and
book-keeping. We must open centers of propaganda and publication under such
names as churches, schools, hospitals, libraries and charity institutions in
the Islamic countries and spread them far and near. We must distribute millions
of Christian book free of charge. We must publish the Christian history and
intergovernmental law alongside the Islamic history. We must disguise our spies
as monks and nuns and place them in churches and monasteries. We must use them
as leaders of Christian movements. These people will at the same time detect
all the movements and trends in the Islamic world and report to us
instantaneously. We must institute an army of Christians who will, under such
names as ‘professor’, ‘scientist’, and ‘researcher’, distort and defile the
Islamic history, learn all the facts about Muslims’ ways, behavior, and
religious principles, and then destroy all their books and eradicate the
12- We must confuse the minds of the Islamic youth, boys and girls alike, and
arouse doubts and hesitations in their minds as to Islam. We must completely
strip them of their moral values by means of schools, books, magazines [sports
clubs, publications, motion pictures, television], and our own agents trained
for this job. It is a prerequisite to open clandestine societies to educate and
train Jewish, Christian and other non-Muslim youngsters and use them as decoys to
trap the Muslim youngsters.
13- Civil wars and insurrections must be provoked; Muslims must always be
struggling with one another as well as against non-Muslims so that their
energies will be wasted and improvement and unity will be impossible for them.
Their mental dynamisms and financial sources must be annihilated. Young and
active ones must be done away with. Their orders must be rendered into terror
14- Their economy must be razed in all areas, their sources of income and
agricultural areas must be spoilt, their irrigation channels and lines must be
devastated and rivers dried up, the people must be made to hate the performance
of namaaz and working, and sloth must be made as widespread as possible.
Playgrounds must be opened for lazy people. Narcotics and alcoholic spirits
must be made common.
[The articles we
have cited above were explained very clearly with such aids as maps, pictures
and charts]. I thanked the secretary for giving me a copy of this magnificent
After a month’s stay in London, I received a message from the Ministry ordering
me to go to Iraq to see Muhammad of Najd again. As I was leaving for my
mission, the secretary said to me, “Never be negligent about Muhammad of Najd!
As it is understood from the reports sent by our spies up until now, Muhammad
of Najd is a typical fool very convenient for the realization of our purposes.
“Talk frankly with Muhammad of Najd. Our agents talked with him
frankly in Isfahaan, and he accepted our wishes on terms. The terms he stipulated
are: He would be supported with adequate property and weaponry to protect
himself against states and scholars who would certainly attack him upon his
announcing his ideas and views. A principality would be established in his
country, be it a small one. The Ministry accepted these terms.”
I felt as if I were going to fly from joy when I heard this
news. I asked the secretary what I was supposed to do about this. His reply
was, “The Ministry has devised a subtle scheme for Muhammad of Najd to carry
out, as follows:
“1- He is to declare all Muslims as disbelievers and announce
that it is halaal to kill them, to seize their property, to violate their
chastity, to make their men slaves and their women concubines and to sell them
at slave markets.
“2- He is to state that Ka’ba is an idol and therefore it must be demolished.
In order to do away with the worship of hajj, he is to provoke tribes to raid
groups of hadjis (Muslim pilgrims), to plunder their belongings and to kill
“3- He is to strive to dissuade Muslims from obeying the Khaleefa. He is to
provoke them to revolt against him. He is to prepare armies for this purpose.
He is to exploit every opportunity to spread the conviction that it is
necessary to fight against the notables of Hedjaz and bring disgrace on them.
“4- He is to allege that the mausoleums, domes and sacred places in Muslim
countries are idols and polytheistic milieus and must therefore be demolished.
He is to do his best to produce occasions for insulting Prophet Muhammad, his
Khaleefas, and all prominent scholars of madh-habs.
“5- He is to do his utmost to encourage insurrections, oppressions and anarchy
in Muslim countries.
“6- He is to try to publish a copy of the Qur’aan interpolated with additions
and excisions, as is the case with hadeeths.”
After explaining this six-paragraph scheme, the secretary added,
“Do not panic at this huge programma. For our duty is to sow the seeds for
annihilating Islam. There will come generations to complete this job. The
British government has formed it a habit to be patient and to advance step by
step. Wasn’t Prophet Muhammad, the performer of the great and bewildering
Islamic revolution, a human being after all? And this Muhammad of Najd of ours
has promised to accomplish this revolution of ours like his Prophet.”
A couple of days
later, I took permission from the Minister and the Secretary, bid farewell to
my family and friends, and set out for Basra. As I left home my little son
said, “Come back soon daddy!” My eyes became wet. I could not conceal my sorrow
from my wife. After a tiresome journey I arrived in Basra at night. I went to
Abd-ur-Ridaa’s home. He was asleep. He was very pleased when he woke up and saw
me. He offered me warm hospitality. I spent the night there. The next morning
he said to me, “Muhammad of Najd called on me, left this letter for you, and
left.” I opened the letter. He wrote the was leaving for his country, Najd, and
gave his address there. I at once set out to go there, too. After an extremely
onerous journey I arrived there. I found Muhammad of Najd in his home. He had
lost a lot of weight. I did not say anything this concerning this to him.
Afterwards, I learned that he had gotten married.
We decided between us that he was to tell other people that I was his slave and
was back from some place he had sent me. He introduced me as such.
I stayed with Muhammad of Najd for two years. We made a
programma to announce his call. Eventually I fomented his resolution in 1143
Hijri [A.D. 1730]. Hence by collecting supporters around himself, he insinuated
his call by making covert statements to those who were very close to him. Then,
day by day, he expanded his call. I put guards around him in order to protect
him against his enemies. I gave them as much property and money as they wanted.
Whenever the enemies of Muhammad of Najd wanted to attack him, I inspirited and
heartened them. As his call spread wider, the number of his adversaries
increased. From time to time he attempted to give up his call, especially when
he was overwhelmed by the multitude of the attacks made on him. Yet I never
left him alone and always encouraged him. I would say to him, “O Muhammad, the
Prophet suffered more persecution than you have so far. You know, this is a way
of honor. Like any other revolutionist, you would have to endure some
Enemy attack was likely any moment. I therefore hired spies on
his adversaries. Whenever his enemies meant harm to him, the spies would report
to me and so I would neutralize their harm. Once I was informed that the
enemies were to kill him. I immediately took the precautions to thwart their
preparations. When the people (around Muhammad of Najd) heard about this plot
of their enemies, they began to hate them all the more. They fell into the trap
they had laid.
Muhammad of Najd promised me that he would implement all the six
articles of the scheme and added, “For the time being I can execute them only
partly.” He was right in this word of his. At that time it was impossible for
him to carry out all of them.
He found it impossible to have Ka’ba demolished. And he gave up
the idea of announcing that it (Ka’ba) is an idol. In addition, he refused to
publish an interpolated copy of the Qur’aan. Most of his fears in this respect
were from the Shereefs in Mekka and the Istanbul government. He told me that
“If we made these two announcements we would be attacked by a powerful army.” I
accepted his excuse. For he was right. The conditions were not favorable at
A couple of years later the Ministry of Commonwealth managed to
cajole Muhammad bin Su’ood, the Ameer of Der’iyya, into joining our lines. They
sent me a messenger to inform me about this and to establish a mutual affection
and cooperation between the two Muhammads. For earning Muslims’ hearts and
trusts, we exploited our Muhammad of Najd religiously, and Muhammad bin Su’ood
politically. It is an historical fact that states based on religion have lived
longer and have been more powerful and more imposing.
Thus we continuously became more and more powerful. We made Der’iyya
city our capital. And we named our new religion the WAHHABI religion. The
Ministry supported and reinforced the Wahhaabee government in an underhanded
way. The new government bought eleven British officers, very well learned in
the Arabic language and desert warfare, under the name of slaves. We prepared
our plans in cooperation with these officers. Both Muhammads followed the way
we showed them. When we did not receive any orders from the Ministry we made
our own decisions.
We all married girls from tribes. We enjoyed the pleasure of a
Muslim wife’s devotion to her husband. Thus we had stronger relations with
tribes. Everything goes well now. Our centralization is becoming more and more
vigorous each day. Unless an unexpected catastrophe takes place, we shall eat
the fruit we have prepared. For we have done whatever is necessary and sown the