• ARMENIAN ISSUE : Plundering Policy of Dashnaks
  • Yayın Tarihi : 11 Mayıs 2016 Çarşamba
  • Kategori : ERMENİ SORUNU

Plundering Policy of Dashnaks

Dashnaks carried out a plundering policy besides torture methods of the middle ages, in the Muslim villages which they raided. Within this context, the following lines is noteworthy from a letter dated June 21, 1920 and written by a Dashnak official to the head of government A.Ogancanyan: " We occupied Zangibasar. This region is so rich that it can cover our debts several times. There has been an unprecedented plundering here for two days. They collected wheats, barleys, rices, samovars, carpets, monies, and golds. Ministry of Finance could only yesterday send two of its officers without any organized power with them. We are missing a huge wealth." [1]

The report of this Dashnak official, who suggested that all those plunder should be acquired by the government, is recorded in the State Archive of Armenia. Another important document on the issue is the report sent by the governor of Kars to central administration. While the governor was giving information on the annihilation of Turkish & Kurdish population in the region and on the plunder of their assets, he had complained that they were not always successful in getting all the riches of villages into their hands after the plunders. The governor went on to say, "The region comprising of Turkish and Kurdish people is actually like a treasure. But, unfortunately, we cannot control the place exactly." [2]

We find another example of Dashnaks’ plunder policy in 105th issue of the newspaper Jogovurd in 1920 which is a publication of dominant powers in Armenia. The journalist called G.Muradyan told his observations concerning the plunder of Azeri villages located on the north shores of Gorci Lake where he was staying, in a manner admiring the plunder policy of the Dashnak government: "As a result of the efforts of out government, the populations of these villages were sent away outside Armenian borders. I saw deserted villages where a few cats and dogs remained behind and these animals had been perplexed by a silence of death, meowing and barking strangely and making silly sounds. The people of these villages left behind great amounts of seeds, potato, wheat and barley. The government can acquire over two million tons of wheat and half a million ton of potato from these villages." [3]

Drawing attention to the fact that Dashnaks’ "land policy" also depended on plunder, Karinyan emphasized that Dashnak ministers had banished Turkish villagers and accommodated their own supporters on their lands. In parallel to this, he also underlined that a plundering and pillaging policy prevailed to fill the state budget. He mentioned the pillage in Surmalin and Charbakh districts, two Muslim areas, as the two examples of that policy. Mentioning in detail that the expulsion of Muslim villagers from their lands, and the corruptions of government ranks resulting from this plunder, Karinyan stated that it was impossible to mention these occurrences in the press because of censorship, bans and threats. [4]

Torturing of Armenian People by Dashnaks

We understand from Dashnak documents that Armenian villagers were also subjected to unbelievable tortures by the government. For example, it is written in the documents that Dashnak government’s commissioner V.Agamyan punished people and executed them by shooting without any investigation or court trial with the pretext of preventing desertion from the army. Agamyan had undressed the wives, mothers and sisters of those accused of desertion and he had forced them to imitate goose step on the public square of the village before all the village people. Then this Dashnak official had beaten all the naked women and he had kept them in water for hours. Then ordering the arrest of the women, Agamyan had raped young women and girls. Agamyan remained on duty for a long while, without getting any punishment.

Dashnak government had withdrawn Agamyan to the headquarters only after they learned through their agent called M.Azarapetov that villagers would attempt to assassinate him. [5]

Cagetyan, one of the former ministers of Dashnaks, had written the following About Dashnak government, inside of which he served, in an article published in Iran: "The government troops, so-called voluntary units (humba), plundered villages of Ijevan (formerly Delican) district and raped women. Voluntary execution team’s practices had such an impact on villagers that humbapeta (head of unit) Arch-Mard (Bear-Man) was besieging the whole town with 50 volunteers and was completely destroying it. Almost a thousand Armenian villagers were expelled to Azerbaijani territories."

Cagetyan wrote that no local official had been punished due to friendships and favoritism and continued: "Armenian Interior Ministry became a shelter for all criminal figures in the country . Minister Krmonyan himself embezzled 50 million Rubles from the state treasury one day before he left his office." [6]

Another Dashnak representative Chalhushyan called government troops as "plunder units" after many years and told that after sunset going somewhere without a gun at the centre of the capital had been impossible. [7] Actually, the humbapeta system (system of voluntary units), caused anarchy and plunders to prevail in Armenia and neighboring countries. This atmosphere resulted in the creation of voluntary units by everybody who felt the impulse to do so and turned armed units into criminal gangs.

The following notice given by humbapeta Deli-Kazar describes this situation very well: "To Armenians of Yerevan region and city of Yerevan: Today, I am going to battle zone together with all the boys. If anyone present himself as a member of Deli-Kazar and abuse my name as a racketeer, he will be severely punished by the people and the military authority." [8]

Dashnak government had called all citizens younger than 35 years in 1918 and it formed again "voluntary" units to fight against Turkey. In their publications they told that anyone opposing these decisions would be subjected to death penalty and those who were sensible would obey the rules and thus resorted to threat methods. The issue of March 1st 1918 of a Dashnak publication called "Arev" which was being published in Baku is an example of this. [9]

In another document preserved in the Armenian State Archive, it is seen that Dashnak government sent special detachments to punish the villages of Berd, Verhniy, Karmir, Ahbyur and other villages in Shamshadinsk area which rejected to send soldiers for unending wars with neighboring countries and for international massacres. [10]

In a publication called Martik and published in Gyumri, it is stated that two cannons and one machine gun would be sent together with a group of soldiers for punishment to the villages of those who escape from mobilization and that those who oppose would be bombarded. [11] Moreover, in order to prevent desertions, Dashnak government had formed special units called "Terror Organ" and hanged out the following notices on the walls of the city: "To all deserters and Armenian public:, 3 Armenian soldiers who had betrayed the homeland and Armenian people on the night of March 1st, one by stealing a horse and the other two by deserting their regiments, were executed by shooting".

They announce that unless all deserters return to their units and carry out their military service before it is too late, they would be punished in the same way. Death to traitors who will cause the raid of Shirak by Turks. Terror Organ. Gyumri, March 2nd 1918. [12]

It is reported in the newspaper Jogavurd dated June 29th 1920, a paper of dominant Armenian powers, that Dashnak government had closed the branch of Zangi river to punish unyielding villagers and had left the villages in the region without water. As a result of this punishment many people died and crops on fields had been destroyed. [13]

Mauses Petros, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Dashnaks, who judged the situation like Kachaznuni states in his open letter to Simeon Vratsyan, one of former Premiers of Dashnaks, that being adventurous brought devastation, hunger and national conflicts to the country. The open letter of Petros was published in Zang, the publication organ of Hunchaks, on September 21st 1921 issue. [14]

Also, Kachaznuni emphasized that the parliamentary elections of 1919, in which they gained a great victory, had blinded them and told that after a while this situation had led to a dictatorial administration of the country: "State affairs started to be discussed and resolved in the room of the Dashnak fraction, and then they were being announced from parliamentary chair. In practice, there were no parliamentary fractions, because it was completely under the control of Dashnaktsuthiun Bureau. This bureau had turned into executive power of the state. "Armenian parliament (in other words the Dashnak fraction, or its Bureau) gave the authority of dictatorship to Dashnaktsuthiun Bureau." [15]

Myasnikyan, one of the statesmen of the Soviet Armenia, underlined in his article titled "Old and New Armenia" published in the newspaper Horurdain Ayastan on November 29th 1921, that there were no guarantee of life in Armenia of Dashnaks, the roads had been intercepted by bandits, and lawlessness prevailed in the country. He stated that ministers had been chosen among robbers and delegations had consisted of people who were careerists and who pillaged public assets. He noted that it was in this way that former Dashnak minister Agaronyan obtained his villas in Paris and another minister Dastakyan owned hundreds of thousands of Francs in Romania.

He wrote that parliamentarians of Dashnak period had acquired big lands, one of the senior statesmen Vrastsyan had smuggled millions of golds out of the country, humbapetas had misappropriated cattle. [16] M.Nersisyan proves based on documents that that the economy had been completely ruined, agriculture had collapsed, transportation had been disrupted, and population had starved to death during Dashnak dictatorship in his brochure titled "Dashnak Heaven or Country of Starvation and Death" published in 1932. Proletarians had been deprived of all their rights and subjected to a ruthless exploitation.

Dashnaks ignited national enmity in the country and made nations suffer great troubles. [17]The narrative in an article published in the newspaper Ayastani Dzayn on November 28th 1920 in Armenia is no different: "Failure of former Dashnak government is explained by the fact that Armenia turned into a farm of Dashnaktsuthiun. The State turned into the monopoly of this party. Flocks of different elements were being tested by the Dashnak regime and then they were being appointed to positions where they could fill their pockets." [18]

Soviet Armenian historian Vartanyan states that Dashnaks authority depended on corrupts, racketeers and plunderers. [19]He notes the oppression by Dashnaks on their own people and on the minorities in Armenia. Furthermore, Dashnaks had also incited a national slaughter in their own country. [20]

For these reasons, Tbilisi Committee of the Russian Communist Party informed that they harshly protest the "Dashnak Brutality" and Mikoyan, an ethnic Armenian in the party administration, stated that all measures would be taken to give an end to "bloody murders" of Dashnaks. [21] Based on the official data, Lalayan states that the result of the 30 months of bloody dictatorship of Dashnaks was the decline of Armenian population by 35.5 percent, of Turkish population by 77 percent, of Kurdish population by 98 percent and of Yazidi population by 40 percent in Armenian lands. [22]

Rightful Case of Turkey

In order to secure the benefits of imperialist states in Caucasia and Anatolia, massacres perpetrated by Armenians against Turkish and Kurdish people, besides oppression of Armenian villagers are the facts which most effectively demonstrate the rightful war waged by Turkey. Armenian archives, which display these facts, also contain documents that directly prove Turkey’s rightful struggle.

The commander of the army of Dashnak government sends an officer to search for deserting soldiers in the villages of Gyumri. Based on the expressions of this officer, the above-mentioned commander reports the following information to headquarters of the Dashnak government’s army on November 14, 1920: "Armenians of Gyumri region gave an hostile reception to the Armenian officer and even attempted to surrender him to Turks for several times. Public is reactive and see the army as an enemy in many of the villages. In the villages of Inhiab and Kapanak red flags had been hoisted. My officer (…) came across with Turkish cavalry patrol accompanied by Selchan Armenians in Kapanak village. Turks were greeted with bread and salt. Women in the villages cooked meals in caldrons. When my officer asked for whom they cooked the meal, they answered: Of course for Turks. Not for you." [23]

The reaction of the Armenian public caused by the campaign of Turkish army, which is accused of genocide today, is recounted by an Armenian officer in this way. Armenian communists also establish this situation in their reports and they write that people of Gyumri welcome Kemalists with salt and bread, and communists with red flag. (…)

The report of Ovannes Kachaznuni, founder of Dashnak party and the first Premier of Dashnak rule, also include expressions which will prove the rightfulness of Turkey. Kachanuni wrote that the relocation carried out in the summer and autumn of 1915 caused their dream of an independent Armenia, which had been promised by European diplomats, to be have been in vain, and he also stated that Turkey knew very well what it was doing and had no reason to feel regretful today. (…)

It is clear that this counter movement should have occurred in northeast and southwest. "But, they had to make safe the rear zone of the front at the Armenian side in order to be able to focus on the front with Greeks. (…) We did not do our best to avoid a war. We should have made more efforts to find a common language with Turks, whatever the result may be. We did not do this. (…) We were not afraid of a war, to such an extent that we were certain about victory. The unexpected conquering of Oltu by Turks was a challenge. We understood that we themselves wanted a war.

When the military operations began at the front, Turks made a suggestion to hold talks. We refused their suggestion. It was a great murder. (…) It is necessary to remind that we were not a negligible quantity in the Turks’ eyes. The disasters of the last two years had already been forgotten. Our people had rested a little bit and they had pulled themselves together. We had an army that had been armed and dressed well by the British. (…)

We had an important stronghold like Kars. Lastly, the Treaty of Sevres, which was not an ordinary paper at the time, was a great trump card against Turks. (…) The Treaty of Sevres had blinded us. (…)

Boryan also makes important observations on the rightful fighting of Turkey. Boryan writes that Eastern Office and Istanbul Committee of the Dashnaktsuthiun Party decided to organize uprising against Turks in Eastern Anatolia in line with the plans of Russian Ministry of War, and upon this decision about 10 thousand Dashnak fighters instigated uprising in the province of Van while voluntary Armenian troops commanded by Andranik was approaching the city. As Boryan stated, Dashnaktsuthiun Party fulfilled its duty against imperialist masters. However, the following statements of Boryan are much more significant in that they describe the essence of the issue: "As it is self-evident, when a crowd of 10 thousand people behind the battle zone rebel against the State, the State Administration necessitates measures for self-defense to be taken by state authority and statesmen. This principle can be fully implemented by searching for and finding the means for the suppression of the uprising and without forgetting one significant task which is the defense of one’s own country: The objective makes the means justifiable." [24]

Dashnaks Accountable of the Sufferings Together With the Imperialist States

Sources of Dashnak and Soviet Armenia clearly demonstrate that those who are accountable for the sufferings of Armenian people are imperialist states and the Dashnaktsuthiun Party. Noting that particularly the creation of voluntary units was a great mistake, Kachaznuni held themselves responsible for the disaster he caused:

"During the autumn of 1914, when Turkey was not among in the warring parties and did not intend to take part among them, formation of voluntary units had been initiated in Transcaucasia with a big noise and great energy.

Although the Armenian Revolutionary Party Dashnaktsuthiun (ARPD) decided to pursue a negative stance against voluntary units a few weeks ago in Erzurum, it took an active role in the formation of the units and in military campaign against Turkey. In this severe and commitment requiring issue, which might have given rise to very bad and serious results, Transcaucasian organs and several administrators of the ARPD violated the will of the congress, which is the supreme organ of the party." [25] (…)

The process following this had turned into a nightmare for Kachaznuni. Dashnaktsuthiun had just to find a guilty other than the party itself. The guilty one was immediately found. That was the sneaky policies of the Russian government. Eussians had cheated Armenians and betrayed them. Not only public but also aware citizens thought this way at that period. Of course, Russians had no intention of protecting Turkish Armenians. But, more importantly, they passed on their wishes onto Russians. When their wishes did not turn into reality, they accused Russians with betrayal.

As a political party they forgot that their case was not to the benefit of Russians. The war did not break out of the Armenian issue: "The tragedy is to complain about our bad luck and to look for an exterior reason for our unhappiness. A characteristic of our national psychology from which Dashnaktsuthiun could not avoid. We were certain that Russians had treated us vilely, as if this would give us a special solace. (Then there were French, Americans, British, Georgians, Bolsheviks, that is the whole world).

Our laziness and short-sightedness were as if our heroism. As a consequence, this resulted in a situation that everybody could deceive and betray us, kill us or made others kill us." [26]

Stating that Western States had left them in the lurch, Kachaznuni expresses that Armenian issue had come to an end in the Lausanne Conference after Turkey’s victory and makes an overall retrospective self-criticism: "These remained behind. If we are to make a general assessment of our deeds after the declaration of the republic, the heavy work we undertook and the results we obtained, I can tell that we did almost nothing to be proud of, and the burden on our shoulders: state organization, administering state affairs was above our capacity. (…)We did not know the dimensions of our capabilities and could not evaluate them properly, we did not understand the size of the obstacles, could not judge opposing forces appropriately. (…) We could not become good statesmen." [27]

Emphasizing that people had perished because of fighting and haddied of hunger, but they could not give anything to Armenia, Kachaznuni ends the published part of his report with these emphases: "Dashnaktsuthiun has nothing to do anymore!

Our party did everything that was needed and it exhausted itself. New living conditions raise new demands and we are not capable to meet these demands. Therefore, we should withdraw from this arena and leae our place to those that are more competent than us. (…)

I told that Dashnaktsuthiun has nothing to do anymore. I could not express myself truly. We have one more job, we have an obligation towards the history of Armenian political movement and to our own history. The party should put an end to its existence consciously and definitively with its own decision. Yes, I suggest suicide. There are circumstances that the only dignified outcome is suicide. You see, our Party is just in one of those circumstances. We should have done this four or five years ago. (…) Unless we take this decision, destruction and a dishonorable end awaits us. (…)

Here is the tragic truth! We should show the courage to accept this truth and do what is necessary. The solution is clear: Committing suicide." [28]

While the first Premier of Dashnaks made these statements, their last Premier Vratsyan stated the following in their media organ Arac on December 3rd 1920, at a time when Dashnak rule was collapsing: "Armenia was under the influence of the Entente Powers, particularly of the British policy to date. Today, when we got out of their influence, we should tell that collaboration with the Entente Powers gave us much harm. To such an extent that for the benefits of Entente Powers we turned Armenia into an arena of ceaseless wars with our neighbors." [29] It is interesting that Dashnaks advocate an orientation toward Turkey in a period when Soviet rule was established in Armenia. In an article published in the Dashnak newspaper Arac on November 20th 1920 titled "Ceasefire and Our Tendencies", it is told "If Armenian people want to protect its presence, it should have an orientation not toward Russia but toward Turkey" . [30]

Karinyan, one of the senior statesmen of Soviet Armenia, pointed to an important subject and underlined that the government of Young Turks had conveyed their requests to Armenians about voluntary units before the relocation practice:

"Meanwhile, before the war started, the government of Turks and senior representatives of the Committee of Union and Progress which was the governing party had appealed to Turkish Armenians many times and requested them to influence those who were organizing voluntary units and particularly Vramtsan and Gagerin Pastırmacian (Armen Karo), members of this movement in the Turkish Parliament and they promised to protect people’s rights. But, neither requests of Turkish government nor insistent demands of Turkish Armenians could have changed the general tendency." [31]

In his book titled "Imperialist War and Armenia" and published in 1925, A.B.Karinyan points to European States, Christian missionaries and particularly Dashnaks as accountable for the tragedy experienced by Armenian people, because it is known that the element which aided Europeans was the Armenian population living in Turkey. (…) "Their activities of transferring culture in Turkey, brought harm rather than benefit." [32] (…)

Karinyan, who did not mention a single word accusing Turkey for the Armenian case, emphasized that Turkey’s Armenians lived in much more prosperous conditions than Armenians living in Armenia in his book titled "Ancient Turkey and Turkey’s Armenians" that was published in 1926 in two volumes. And most importantly, he stated that nationalist historians of Armenia distorted the truth and presented the socio-economic conditions of Turkey’s Armenians pessimistically [33]. In another article on the restructuring of agriculture and the duties of Soviet rule in Armenia, Karinyan mentioned some points that are important in seeing those who are responsible for the events.

In the land reform he suggested, Karinyan maintained that nationalist and imperialist illusions, which oppose giving land to Armenians who immigrated from Turkey and argue for expanding Armenia’s territories to the disadvantage of Turkey, should be disrupted: "It (Dashnaktsuthiun) started out from the point of a united, national, and indivisible Armenia and annihilated non-Armenian elements around; encouraged the gathering of people in Armenia and while increasing the number of Armenian elements in Armenia, a small and poor country, it continuously fed people with the dream of enlarging Armenian lands by violating the areas on which Turkey’s Armenians lived. [34] (…)

Lalayan also connects the sufferings to the voluntary movement. When the Turkish government saw brutal actions of Dashnaks and perceived the plans of Russian Tsardom for "solving" Armenian issue, this resulted in Turkish government’s increased pressure on Armenians.

According to Lalayan, this suited the interests of Russian Tsardom and used it to provoke Armenians more. (…) Lalayan also underlined that Dashnaks turned its own people into a cannon of flesh in the war with Turks and Arabs on behalf of French capital in order to establish an "Armenian country" in Syria as well. On the other hand, according to Lalayan, Dashnaks threw its own people into the fire in the war against Turkey not only in the period from the autumn of 1914 till the end of 1915 when they prepared voluntary units of 10.000 strong as stated above, but also through sending thousands of Armenians with Caucasian troops in 1916 and 1917. With Lalayan’s statements, thousands of Armenian proletarians had fallen victim to the imperialism of the Tsardom and of the West because of these policies of Dashnaks. [35]

Stepan Georgiyevich Shaumyan, one of the leaders and theoreticians of Armenian Bolshevik movement, described Dashnaks as pan-Armenian and told that it incited mutual slaughter between peoples for its own interests pertaining to class system and imposed hatred toward other nations on Armenian people. According to Shaumyan, Armenian uprisings on Turkish territories bore a reactionary characteristic. Therefore, Dashnaks had sacrificed Armenian people for their reactionary benefits. [36] Marents, one of the theoreticians of the Soviet Armenia, described Dashnaks as fascist and revealed those who were guilty of the dramatic events experienced by Armenian proletarians: "Here, we will not dwell on who is responsible for the living of hundreds of thousands of Armenians in foreign lands.

But there is an irrefutable truth for every sincere proletarian: Turkish people and Armenian proletarians are not guilty. The guilty ones are Western imperialists and their faithful dog Dashnaktsuthiun, being in the first place." [37] (…)

Armenian Sources Reveal the Genocide Lie

I we are to summarize the documents and findings in the Armenian sources, we can outline the results as follows:

1) The "Armenian Issue", which was described as so-called by many officials of Soviet Armenia, was used as a weapon in the hands of Russian Tsardom and Western imperialism. Dashnaks, who were the most significant actors of the issue, became a tool for the Russian Tsardom’s and Western imperialism’s plan for partitioning and colonizing Anatolia. Let aside the opening of Caucasian front, long before the start of First World War, voluntary units started to be formed and through spreading propaganda among Armenian public against Turks Armenians were invited to take part in this fighting on the side of the Entente Powers. Their tasks were to cause anarchy at the front and rear the front and to pave the way for Russian troops with voluntary units. In other words, Dashnaks struck Anatolia from inside with the Armenian committees in Turkey and from outside with those in Transcaucasia. In their own words, they served Russian Tsardom and the imperialist West with their bloods.

2) After the Russian Tsardom collapsed following the October Revolution and a Soviet Russia, which was friendly to Turkey, was founded, Dashnaks functioned as a fence between Turkey and Soviet Russia. Its collaborationist character led Dashnaktsuthiun to become the spearhead of Nazi Germany during the Second World War. In return for this task, Dashnaks were promised a "great Armenia extending from one sea to the other" which was described as nonsense and as an imperialist demand by Kachaznuni himself.

3) The biggest obstacle before the "Great Armenia" project was that Armenians were indisputably a minority in the lands of Anatolia which was planned to be annexed within the borders of this Great Armenia. Muslim population was much bigger than the Armenian population. Dashnaks resorted to massacres against Muslim population in Transcaucasia, Eastern Anatolia and in Adana province and its vicinity in a bid to realize "Greater Armenia" project and also to fulfill their duty which had been allocated to them by the imperialists. Massacres were systematically carried on both during the First World War and also during the period of Dashnaks’ "independent" Armenia. The aim was to "clear this region of Turks and Kurds" in their own words and to facilitate occupation of the Entente Powers. Dashnaks’ terrorist-schemer character goes back to their first years when they perpetrated terrorist attacks in order to win Western public opinion.

In addition to torturing methods of the Middle Ages the Dashnak troops supported a plundering policy in the villages they raided. Particularly the monetary crisis of the country, which was experienced after the declaration of the "independent republic", was tried to be overcome in this way. Besides, they seized the lands of Muslim villagers and transferred those lands to their own supporters. Dashnaktsuthiun government was also ruthless toward Armenian people and carried out unbelievable acts of violence. Corruption, plundering, bribery had risen. Because of ceaseless wars, the number of deserters rose to an incredible level. In order to prevent desertions, even special units called "Terror Organ" were created. You can imagine what kind of an aggression was put into practice against non-Armenian people by Dashnaks who treated its own people like that.

All these experiences remind us the above-mentioned principle stated by Boryan: "The objective makes the means justifiable." With Boryan’s own expressions, when a crowd of people rise up against the state during war, being a state necessitates the demonstration of the state power and the use of the right of self-defense by taking required measures. Therefore, imperialist inspired uprising of Dashnaks had to be suppressed, just like the uprisings of Aznavur family or Capanogullari family had been suppressed. In that period, Ottomans and the Turkish Grand National Assembly fought a rightful struggle against Dashnaks and Armenian aggression, and they defended their country. Defense of one’s own country is the most legitimate right. It is such that the operation of Turkish army had been welcomed with enthusiasm by the Armenian villagers.

Those responsible for the relocation as one of those measures are Dashnaks as well as Western imperialists and Russian Tsardom. These powers sacrificed Armenian people for their colonialistic intentions. Neither the requests of the leaders of the Union and Progress Party, nor the warnings of several Dashnak leaders living in Turkey did work. It is told that archives should be opened and the truths should be revealed. Here are the truths! The sources of Dashnak and Soviet Armenia reveal Dashnaktsuthiun reality and thus the genocide lie.

Neither a single line of these documents and works was written by Turkish officials, nor a single sheet of them is preserved in Turkish archives or libraries. They were all written by Dashnak officials or officials of Soviet Armenia. They are all preserved in Armenian archives and libraries. The arguments of Turkey are corroborated by Armenian sources. The point that should be included in their own agendas by the officials who organized this important symposium and by the esteemed participants is to ensure that these documents are evaluated in the international arena and to give an answer to genocide lies.

[[1]Quoted from Gosarhiv Armenii, by A.A.Lalayan. Ibid, p. 100.
[2] Quoted from Gosarhiv Armenii: Ibid.
[3] Quoted from Jogovurd, No.105, 1920. Ibid., p.100.
[4]Ibid., A. Karinyan, p. 71.
[5] Quoted from Gosarhiv Armenii: Ibid. p. 101
[6] See, A.Krinyan, Ibid, p. 5.
[7] See, Ibid, p. 70.
[8] T.Hachikoglyan, Ibid, p.5.
[9] Quoted by A.Lalayan from Arev., No. 46, March 1918 : "Kontrevolyutsiyonnıy Daşnaksutyun Imperialistiçeskaya Voyna 1914-1918 gg", p. 96.
[10] Quoted by A.M.Elcibekyan from the State Archive of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Armenia (TsGA Arm. SSR) : Ustanovlenie Sovyetskoy Vlasti V Armenii, Izdatelstvo AN Armyanskoy SSR, Yerevan, 1954, p. 76.
[11] Ouoted by T.P.Agayan from Martik, No.2, 1918. Ibid. p.134.
[12] T.Hachikoglyan, Ibid.,p. 7.
[13]Quoted by A.A. Lalayan from Jogavurd, No.102, 29 June 1920 : "Kontrrevolyutsionnaya Rol Parti Daşnaksutyun", p.102.
[14] See, RGASPI, f. 64, 1. 1, d. 208, p. 167-171.
[15] O.Kachaznuni, Ibid, p. 59.
[16] A.F.Myasnikyan, Izbrannie Proizvedeniya, p. 364.
[17] See, T.P.Agayan, Ibid, p.32.
[18]RGASPI, F. 80, 1. 4, D. 83, P. 137.
[19] S.A. Vartanyan, Pobeda Sovyetskoy Vlasti V Armenii (1917-1920), Akademiya Nauk Armyanskoy SSR Instut Istorii, Yerevan, 1954, p. 17, 19, 29.
[20] Ibid., p.17.
[21] Quoted by Vartanyan from Central State Archive of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Armenia (TsGA Arm. SSR) f.66/200, d. 401/144, 1. 74, Ibid. p.29.
[22] A.A. Lalayan, Ibid., p. 104.
[23] Quoted by A.M.Elchibekyan from TsGA Arm. SSR, f. 68/200, d. 867, y.278, Velikaya Oktyabrskaya Sotsialistiçeska Revolyutsiya İ Pobeda Sovyetskoy Vlasti V Armenii, İzdateltsvo Armyanskoy SSR, Yerevan, 1957, p. 209.
[24]B.A.Boryan, "Armenia, International Diplomacy and USSR", 1929, p. 362.
[25] O.Kachaznuni, Ibid., p.13.
[26] Ibid., p. 21.
[27] Ibid., p. 69.
[28] Ibid., p. 73.
[29] RGASPI, F. 80, 1. 4, D. 83, P. 136
[30] Quoted from Arac, No.255, November 20, 1920: by A.A.Lalayan in Ibid., p. 105 and by T.P.Agayan, Ibid, p. 31.
[31] A.Karinyan, Ibid., p. 59.
[32] Quoted from A.Karinyan, Sobranie Soçineniy, v. 1, Yerevan, 1934, p. 117, 121, 162, 226 and on, by K.N.Karamyan, Ibid., p. 14.
[33] Quoted from A.Karinyan, Straya Turtsiya İ Turetskie Armyane, v. 1-2, "Nork", 1926; Ibid., p.14.
[34] Quoted from Ekonomiçeski Vestnik SSR Armenii, No. 3-4, March-April 1923, Yerevan, p. 52,
[35] A.Lalayan, "Kontrrevolyutsionny Daşnaksutyun İ İmperialistiçeskaya Voyna 1914-1918 gg", p. 93.
[36] See, A.Karinyan, Şaumyan İ Nasionalistiçeskie Teçeniya Na Kavkaze, İspart Otdel TsKı BKAKP (b), Baku 1918, p. 8, 29, 32 and on.
[37] Marents, "Litso Armyanskogo Smenohovstva", Bolshevik Zakavkazya, No.3-4, 1928, p. 94.

Source: Symposium on the Development of Turkish-Armenian
Relations and Events of 1915, Ankara 2005

Mehmet Perincek