National security policies have attained a more fragile structure with the results of globalization in recent years. States have started to give importance to information and technology security rather than border security today. The concept of cyber security is one of the security areas that have developed in recent years at this point. In the face of the incredible speed of technology, it becomes more difficult to ensure security day by day. For this reason, states had to constantly update their measures in the field of cyber security. Besides the field of cyber security in interstate relations resembles an ongoing flag race. Similar to the arms race that started before the First World War, interstate competition continues in the field of cyber security. Undoubtedly, Russia is one of the states that actively exist in this competition. The cyber security field, which has become a state policy in the 2000s in Russia, continues its development today. The concept of cyber security, which came to the agenda again with the 2016 Presidential elections in the United States of America (USA), will continue its effective presence in security policies today and in the coming years. The concept of cyber security generally brought to minds and intelligence organizations. Russia, on the other hand, tried to use this technology in all other areas as well as strengthening its cyber domination in military and intelligence activities and wanted to control the information resources of its citizens. Russia has not limited its activities in the field of cyber security to certain state institutions only. Cyber security activities are supported by hacker groups under state control but not affiliated with any government agency. This article aims to analyze Russia’s cyber security and cyber espionage policies in light of this information. In this context, the development of Russia’s cyber security activities has been handled with a historical process and the cyber security capacity of Russia has been analyzed by revealing state and non-state actors operating in the field of cyber security in Russia.
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