In the
1950’s, when rocket methods of studying the upper atmosphere were just
beginning to be developed, Soviet scientist I. S. Shklovskiy and English
scientist D. R. Bates suggested the idea of creating an artificial luminous

proposed discharging a small quantity of sodium vapor into the atmosphere by
rockets, thinking that because of resonant emission, the sodium atoms
illuminated by the sun should form a luminous cloud in the atmosphere which
would be clearly visible from the Earth.

idea of creating luminous clouds to study the physiochemical and dynamic
processes in the upper atmosphere proved to be so intriguing that it was rapidly
developed in many rocket experiments.

Defenses through Weather Control in 2030
, April 2009 [43 Pages,
1.90MB] – The United States needs to incorporate the defense against
directed energy weapons with the same intensity used developing anti-ballistic
missile defenses. One of the major drawbacks to optical or directed energy
systems is the inability to penetrate clouds or dense fog. Advances in
technology are beginning to bring weather phenomena under our control. Greatly
increased computing power and micronized delivery systems will allow us to
create specific perturbations in local atmospheric conditions. These
perturbations allow for the immediate and lasting ability to create localized
fog or stratus cloud formations shielding critical assets against attack from
energy based weapons. The future of nanotechnology will enable creation of
stratus cloud formations to defeat DEW and optically targeted attacks on United
Sates assets. The solution the weather control problem involves networked
miniature balloons feeding and receiving data from a four-dimensional variation
(4d-Var) computer model through a sensor and actor network. A network of
diamond-walled balloons enters the area to be changed and then both measures
and affects localized temperature and vapor content. This system effectively
shortens the control loop of an atmospheric system to the point it can be
managed. The capabilities in the diamond-walled balloons are based on the
future of nanotechnology

Weather Modification, by BARRY B. COBLE, MAJOR, USAF, May 1997
Pages, 1.90MB] – Weather modification is a technology once embraced by the
United States (US) military as a tool to help both wartime and peacetime
missions. However, interest in the ability to modify weather has waned
over recent years and is now nearly nonexistent. This study examines
one aspect of weather modification, benign weather modification (BWM), for
possible use in assisting military operations.

Generating and Hail Preventing Rockets, 1996
 [6 Pages, 1.18MB]

the Protection of Artificial Fog, 1993
 [11 Pages, 5.77MB]

Modification: The Ultimate Weapon? April 1993
 [30 Pages, 1.70MB]
– Weather modification. The very words conjure up an Image of quackery,
charlatanism and trickery. Attempts to control or alter the weather are
almost as old as civilization itself, ranging from the incantations of
ancient priests, through the famous rain dances of North American Indians,
to modern computer-supported experimentation and modeling. Yet, in spite
of this long history, the credibility of these techniques has always remained
rather low, due principally to the inherent problem of verifying results.
However, while many obstacles remain to be overcome, considerable
technological and scientific progress in weather modification has been
made since the Second World War, to the point where it deserves serious
consideration, especially in light of the potentially catastrophic consequences
of its use.

Artificial Clouds in the Earth’s Atmosphere, 5 February 1988
Pages, 1.92MB]

of International Workshop on Atmospheric Icing of Structures (1st) Held at
Hanover, New Hampshire on 1-3 June 1982
 [361 Pages, 23.2MB] – The
accumulation of ice in its various forms on structures has long been recognized
as a significant and costly problem for both industry and government
world-wide. The purpose of this First International Workshop on Atmospheric
Icing of Structures was to bring together scientists, engineers and managers
from industrial and military organizations from around the world that have an
interest in the accretion of ice on structures. The presumption underlying the
use of ‘First’ in the title of the workshop is that this meeting would
demonstrate the need for continued exchange of ideas, of reports of work
accomplished and of future plans, and further identification of research areas
requiring particular attention. The 39 papers from 10 countries presented at
the workshop were organized into four technical sessions representing the
various aspects of structural ice accretion studies underway. Topics included:
Basic research; Physics of ice accretion; Simulation and modeling;
Design-oriented research; Meteorological measurements and damage observations; and
Iceload measurements and design practices.

Scale Effects of Cloud Seeding. 1970-71 Season and Four Year Summary, October
 [166 Pages, 6.1MB]

Project Skyfire Cloud-Seeding Generator, 1957
[19 Pages, 1.01MB]

Foggy Cloud

Foggy Cloud
I was a series of experiments in observation, modification, and treatment of
fog and stratus clouds conducted at or near the Arcata-Eureka airport, Humboldt
County, Calif., from late March through mid- November 1968. A wide range of
propsective seeding agents, including smokes, liquids, and powders, that were
thought to offer promise for stabilization or clearance of fog were
systematically screened by ground-based and airborne dissemination. The major
emphasis was placed upon the elimination of fog rather than upon simply
improving visibility. Those agents showing enough identifiable effects to
indicate promise were investigated in detail and improved upon. Observations
were made of fog characteristics, visual effects, changes in cloud physics
parameters, and of the fallout from the fog. Hygroscopic smokes were found
useful for intensifying, stabilizing, and forming fog and stratus. Hygroscopic
powders, including sodium chloride, urea, and calcium chloride, were tried. Of
these, calcium chloride showed the most promise, but testing was not completed.
Hygroscopic liquids showed the most immediate results, and successful tests
were made with ammonium nitrate in solution. In October, a solution consisting
of ammonium nitrate, urea, and water was developed that was used in several
very successful field trials.

Foggy Cloud
[89 Pages, 4.77mb]

Gulf Q

Project Gulf
Q was conducted 11 through 28 May 1969 at Brownsville, Tex. The objective was
to study the modification of warm tropical cumulus clouds by seeding them with
hygroscopic solutions that had exhibited considerable warm cloud modification
potential. These solutions were sprayed from aircraft on all of the 16 tests
completed during the project period. Effects attributable to this treatment
were observed in all tests. When cloud growth occurred afterseeding, there were
frequently marked increases in liquid water content and turbulence, especially
in the upper half of the target cloud. On five tests the seeded clouds
completely dissipated within 5 to10 minutes after treatment.

Gulf Q a Study of Maritime Cumulus Modification
[30 Pages, 1mb]