Plundering Policy of
Dashnaks carried out a plundering policy besides torture methods of the
middle ages, in the Muslim villages which they raided. Within this context,
the following lines is noteworthy from a letter dated June 21, 1920 and
written by a Dashnak official to the head of government A.Ogancanyan: “
We occupied Zangibasar. This region is so rich that it can cover our debts
several times. There has been an unprecedented plundering here for two days.
They collected wheats, barleys, rices, samovars, carpets, monies, and golds.
Ministry of Finance could only yesterday send two of its officers without any
organized power with them. We are missing a huge wealth.” 
The report of this Dashnak official, who suggested that all those plunder
should be acquired by the government, is recorded in the State Archive of
Armenia. Another important document on the issue is the report sent by the
governor of Kars to central administration. While the governor was giving
information on the annihilation of Turkish & Kurdish population in the
region and on the plunder of their assets, he had complained that they were
not always successful in getting all the riches of villages into their hands
after the plunders. The governor went on to say, “The region comprising
of Turkish and Kurdish people is actually like a treasure. But,
unfortunately, we cannot control the place exactly.” 
We find another example of Dashnaks’ plunder policy in 105th issue of the
newspaper Jogovurd in 1920 which is a publication of dominant powers in
Armenia. The journalist called G.Muradyan told his observations concerning
the plunder of Azeri villages located on the north shores of Gorci Lake where
he was staying, in a manner admiring the plunder policy of the Dashnak
government: “As a result of the efforts of out government, the
populations of these villages were sent away outside Armenian borders. I saw
deserted villages where a few cats and dogs remained behind and these animals
had been perplexed by a silence of death, meowing and barking strangely and
making silly sounds. The people of these villages left behind great amounts
of seeds, potato, wheat and barley. The government can acquire over two
million tons of wheat and half a million ton of potato from these
Drawing attention to the fact that Dashnaks’ “land policy” also
depended on plunder, Karinyan emphasized that Dashnak ministers had banished
Turkish villagers and accommodated their own supporters on their lands. In
parallel to this, he also underlined that a plundering and pillaging policy
prevailed to fill the state budget. He mentioned the pillage in Surmalin and
Charbakh districts, two Muslim areas, as the two examples of that policy.
Mentioning in detail that the expulsion of Muslim villagers from their lands,
and the corruptions of government ranks resulting from this plunder, Karinyan
stated that it was impossible to mention these occurrences in the press
because of censorship, bans and threats. 
Torturing of Armenian People by Dashnaks
We understand from Dashnak documents that Armenian villagers were also
subjected to unbelievable tortures by the government. For example, it is
written in the documents that Dashnak government’s commissioner V.Agamyan
punished people and executed them by shooting without any investigation or
court trial with the pretext of preventing desertion from the army. Agamyan
had undressed the wives, mothers and sisters of those accused of desertion
and he had forced them to imitate goose step on the public square of the
village before all the village people. Then this Dashnak official had beaten
all the naked women and he had kept them in water for hours. Then ordering
the arrest of the women, Agamyan had raped young women and girls. Agamyan
remained on duty for a long while, without getting any punishment.
Dashnak government had withdrawn Agamyan to the headquarters only after they
learned through their agent called M.Azarapetov that villagers would attempt
to assassinate him. 
Cagetyan, one of the former ministers of Dashnaks, had written the following
About Dashnak government, inside of which he served, in an article published
in Iran: “The government troops, so-called voluntary units (humba),
plundered villages of Ijevan (formerly Delican) district and raped women.
Voluntary execution team’s practices had such an impact on villagers that
humbapeta (head of unit) Arch-Mard (Bear-Man) was besieging the whole town
with 50 volunteers and was completely destroying it. Almost a thousand
Armenian villagers were expelled to Azerbaijani territories.”
Cagetyan wrote that no local official had been punished due to friendships
and favoritism and continued: “Armenian Interior Ministry became a
shelter for all criminal figures in the country . Minister Krmonyan himself
embezzled 50 million Rubles from the state treasury one day before he left
his office.” 
Another Dashnak representative Chalhushyan called government troops as
“plunder units” after many years and told that after sunset going
somewhere without a gun at the centre of the capital had been impossible. 
Actually, the humbapeta system (system of voluntary units), caused anarchy
and plunders to prevail in Armenia and neighboring countries. This atmosphere
resulted in the creation of voluntary units by everybody who felt the impulse
to do so and turned armed units into criminal gangs.
The following notice given by humbapeta Deli-Kazar describes this situation
very well: “To Armenians of Yerevan region and city of Yerevan: Today, I
am going to battle zone together with all the boys. If anyone present himself
as a member of Deli-Kazar and abuse my name as a racketeer, he will be
severely punished by the people and the military authority.” 
Dashnak government had called all citizens younger than 35 years in 1918 and
it formed again “voluntary” units to fight against Turkey. In their
publications they told that anyone opposing these decisions would be
subjected to death penalty and those who were sensible would obey the rules and
thus resorted to threat methods. The issue of March 1st 1918 of a Dashnak
publication called “Arev” which was being published in Baku is an
example of this. 
In another document preserved in the Armenian State Archive, it is seen that
Dashnak government sent special detachments to punish the villages of Berd,
Verhniy, Karmir, Ahbyur and other villages in Shamshadinsk area which
rejected to send soldiers for unending wars with neighboring countries and
for international massacres. 
In a publication called Martik and published in Gyumri, it is stated that two
cannons and one machine gun would be sent together with a group of soldiers
for punishment to the villages of those who escape from mobilization and that
those who oppose would be bombarded.  Moreover, in order to prevent
desertions, Dashnak government had formed special units called “Terror
Organ” and hanged out the following notices on the walls of the city:
“To all deserters and Armenian public:, 3 Armenian soldiers who had
betrayed the homeland and Armenian people on the night of March 1st, one by
stealing a horse and the other two by deserting their regiments, were
executed by shooting”.
They announce that unless all deserters return to their units and carry out
their military service before it is too late, they would be punished in the
same way. Death to traitors who will cause the raid of Shirak by Turks.
Terror Organ. Gyumri, March 2nd 1918. 
It is reported in the newspaper Jogavurd dated June 29th 1920, a paper of
dominant Armenian powers, that Dashnak government had closed the branch of
Zangi river to punish unyielding villagers and had left the villages in the
region without water. As a result of this punishment many people died and
crops on fields had been destroyed. 
Mauses Petros, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Dashnaks, who judged the
situation like Kachaznuni states in his open letter to Simeon Vratsyan, one
of former Premiers of Dashnaks, that being adventurous brought devastation,
hunger and national conflicts to the country. The open letter of Petros was
published in Zang, the publication organ of Hunchaks, on September 21st 1921
Also, Kachaznuni emphasized that the parliamentary elections of 1919, in
which they gained a great victory, had blinded them and told that after a
while this situation had led to a dictatorial administration of the country:
“State affairs started to be discussed and resolved in the room of the
Dashnak fraction, and then they were being announced from parliamentary
chair. In practice, there were no parliamentary fractions, because it was
completely under the control of Dashnaktsuthiun Bureau. This bureau had
turned into executive power of the state. “Armenian parliament (in other
words the Dashnak fraction, or its Bureau) gave the authority of dictatorship
to Dashnaktsuthiun Bureau.” 
Myasnikyan, one of the statesmen of the Soviet Armenia, underlined in his
article titled “Old and New Armenia” published in the newspaper
Horurdain Ayastan on November 29th 1921, that there were no guarantee of life
in Armenia of Dashnaks, the roads had been intercepted by bandits, and
lawlessness prevailed in the country. He stated that ministers had been
chosen among robbers and delegations had consisted of people who were
careerists and who pillaged public assets. He noted that it was in this way
that former Dashnak minister Agaronyan obtained his villas in Paris and
another minister Dastakyan owned hundreds of thousands of Francs in Romania.
He wrote that parliamentarians of Dashnak period had acquired big lands, one
of the senior statesmen Vrastsyan had smuggled millions of golds out of the
country, humbapetas had misappropriated cattle.  M.Nersisyan proves based
on documents that that the economy had been completely ruined, agriculture
had collapsed, transportation had been disrupted, and population had starved
to death during Dashnak dictatorship in his brochure titled “Dashnak
Heaven or Country of Starvation and Death” published in 1932.
Proletarians had been deprived of all their rights and subjected to a
Dashnaks ignited national enmity in the country and made nations suffer great
troubles. The narrative in an article published in the newspaper Ayastani
Dzayn on November 28th 1920 in Armenia is no different: “Failure of
former Dashnak government is explained by the fact that Armenia turned into a
farm of Dashnaktsuthiun. The State turned into the monopoly of this party.
Flocks of different elements were being tested by the Dashnak regime and then
they were being appointed to positions where they could fill their
Soviet Armenian historian Vartanyan states that Dashnaks authority depended
on corrupts, racketeers and plunderers. He notes the oppression by
Dashnaks on their own people and on the minorities in Armenia. Furthermore,
Dashnaks had also incited a national slaughter in their own country. 
For these reasons, Tbilisi Committee of the Russian Communist Party informed
that they harshly protest the “Dashnak Brutality” and Mikoyan, an
ethnic Armenian in the party administration, stated that all measures would
be taken to give an end to “bloody murders” of Dashnaks.  Based
on the official data, Lalayan states that the result of the 30 months of
bloody dictatorship of Dashnaks was the decline of Armenian population by
35.5 percent, of Turkish population by 77 percent, of Kurdish population by
98 percent and of Yazidi population by 40 percent in Armenian lands. 
Rightful Case of Turkey
In order to secure the benefits of imperialist states in Caucasia and
Anatolia, massacres perpetrated by Armenians against Turkish and Kurdish
people, besides oppression of Armenian villagers are the facts which most
effectively demonstrate the rightful war waged by Turkey. Armenian archives, which
display these facts, also contain documents that directly prove Turkey’s
The commander of the army of Dashnak government sends an officer to search
for deserting soldiers in the villages of Gyumri. Based on the expressions of
this officer, the above-mentioned commander reports the following information
to headquarters of the Dashnak government’s army on November 14, 1920:
“Armenians of Gyumri region gave an hostile reception to the Armenian
officer and even attempted to surrender him to Turks for several times.
Public is reactive and see the army as an enemy in many of the villages. In
the villages of Inhiab and Kapanak red flags had been hoisted. My officer (…)
came across with Turkish cavalry patrol accompanied by Selchan Armenians in
Kapanak village. Turks were greeted with bread and salt. Women in the
villages cooked meals in caldrons. When my officer asked for whom they cooked
the meal, they answered: Of course for Turks. Not for you.” 
The reaction of the Armenian public caused by the campaign of Turkish army,
which is accused of genocide today, is recounted by an Armenian officer in
this way. Armenian communists also establish this situation in their reports
and they write that people of Gyumri welcome Kemalists with salt and bread,
and communists with red flag. (…)
The report of Ovannes Kachaznuni, founder of Dashnak party and the first
Premier of Dashnak rule, also include expressions which will prove the
rightfulness of Turkey. Kachanuni wrote that the relocation carried out in
the summer and autumn of 1915 caused their dream of an independent Armenia,
which had been promised by European diplomats, to be have been in vain, and
he also stated that Turkey knew very well what it was doing and had no reason
to feel regretful today. (…)
It is clear that this counter movement should have occurred in northeast and
southwest. “But, they had to make safe the rear zone of the front at the
Armenian side in order to be able to focus on the front with Greeks. (…) We
did not do our best to avoid a war. We should have made more efforts to find
a common language with Turks, whatever the result may be. We did not do this.
(…) We were not afraid of a war, to such an extent that we were certain about
victory. The unexpected conquering of Oltu by Turks was a challenge. We
understood that we themselves wanted a war.
When the military operations began at the front, Turks made a suggestion to
hold talks. We refused their suggestion. It was a great murder. (…) It is
necessary to remind that we were not a negligible quantity in the Turks’
eyes. The disasters of the last two years had already been forgotten. Our
people had rested a little bit and they had pulled themselves together. We
had an army that had been armed and dressed well by the British. (…)
We had an important stronghold like Kars. Lastly, the Treaty of Sevres, which
was not an ordinary paper at the time, was a great trump card against Turks.
(…) The Treaty of Sevres had blinded us. (…)
Boryan also makes important observations on the rightful fighting of Turkey.
Boryan writes that Eastern Office and Istanbul Committee of the
Dashnaktsuthiun Party decided to organize uprising against Turks in Eastern
Anatolia in line with the plans of Russian Ministry of War, and upon this
decision about 10 thousand Dashnak fighters instigated uprising in the
province of Van while voluntary Armenian troops commanded by Andranik was
approaching the city. As Boryan stated, Dashnaktsuthiun Party fulfilled its
duty against imperialist masters. However, the following statements of Boryan
are much more significant in that they describe the essence of the issue:
“As it is self-evident, when a crowd of 10 thousand people behind the
battle zone rebel against the State, the State Administration necessitates measures
for self-defense to be taken by state authority and statesmen. This principle
can be fully implemented by searching for and finding the means for the
suppression of the uprising and without forgetting one significant task which
is the defense of one’s own country: The objective makes the means
Dashnaks Accountable of the Sufferings Together With the Imperialist States
Sources of Dashnak and Soviet Armenia clearly demonstrate that those who are
accountable for the sufferings of Armenian people are imperialist states and
the Dashnaktsuthiun Party. Noting that particularly the creation of voluntary
units was a great mistake, Kachaznuni held themselves responsible for the
disaster he caused:
“During the autumn of 1914, when Turkey was not among in the warring
parties and did not intend to take part among them, formation of voluntary
units had been initiated in Transcaucasia with a big noise and great energy.
Although the Armenian Revolutionary Party Dashnaktsuthiun (ARPD) decided to
pursue a negative stance against voluntary units a few weeks ago in Erzurum,
it took an active role in the formation of the units and in military campaign
against Turkey. In this severe and commitment requiring issue, which might
have given rise to very bad and serious results, Transcaucasian organs and
several administrators of the ARPD violated the will of the congress, which
is the supreme organ of the party.”  (…)
The process following this had turned into a nightmare for Kachaznuni.
Dashnaktsuthiun had just to find a guilty other than the party itself. The
guilty one was immediately found. That was the sneaky policies of the Russian
government. Eussians had cheated Armenians and betrayed them. Not only public
but also aware citizens thought this way at that period. Of course, Russians
had no intention of protecting Turkish Armenians. But, more importantly, they
passed on their wishes onto Russians. When their wishes did not turn into
reality, they accused Russians with betrayal.
As a political party they forgot that their case was not to the benefit of
Russians. The war did not break out of the Armenian issue: “The tragedy
is to complain about our bad luck and to look for an exterior reason for our
unhappiness. A characteristic of our national psychology from which
Dashnaktsuthiun could not avoid. We were certain that Russians had treated us
vilely, as if this would give us a special solace. (Then there were French,
Americans, British, Georgians, Bolsheviks, that is the whole world).
Our laziness and short-sightedness were as if our heroism. As a consequence,
this resulted in a situation that everybody could deceive and betray us, kill
us or made others kill us.” 
Stating that Western States had left them in the lurch, Kachaznuni expresses
that Armenian issue had come to an end in the Lausanne Conference after
Turkey’s victory and makes an overall retrospective self-criticism:
“These remained behind. If we are to make a general assessment of our
deeds after the declaration of the republic, the heavy work we undertook and
the results we obtained, I can tell that we did almost nothing to be proud
of, and the burden on our shoulders: state organization, administering state
affairs was above our capacity. (…)We did not know the dimensions of our
capabilities and could not evaluate them properly, we did not understand the
size of the obstacles, could not judge opposing forces appropriately. (…) We
could not become good statesmen.” 
Emphasizing that people had perished because of fighting and haddied of
hunger, but they could not give anything to Armenia, Kachaznuni ends the
published part of his report with these emphases: “Dashnaktsuthiun has
nothing to do anymore!
Our party did everything that was needed and it exhausted itself. New living
conditions raise new demands and we are not capable to meet these demands.
Therefore, we should withdraw from this arena and leae our place to those
that are more competent than us. (…)
I told that Dashnaktsuthiun has nothing to do anymore. I could not express
myself truly. We have one more job, we have an obligation towards the history
of Armenian political movement and to our own history. The party should put
an end to its existence consciously and definitively with its own decision.
Yes, I suggest suicide. There are circumstances that the only dignified
outcome is suicide. You see, our Party is just in one of those circumstances.
We should have done this four or five years ago. (…) Unless we take this
decision, destruction and a dishonorable end awaits us. (…)
Here is the tragic truth! We should show the courage to accept this truth and
do what is necessary. The solution is clear: Committing suicide.” 
While the first Premier of Dashnaks made these statements, their last Premier
Vratsyan stated the following in their media organ Arac on December 3rd 1920,
at a time when Dashnak rule was collapsing: “Armenia was under the
influence of the Entente Powers, particularly of the British policy to date.
Today, when we got out of their influence, we should tell that collaboration
with the Entente Powers gave us much harm. To such an extent that for the
benefits of Entente Powers we turned Armenia into an arena of ceaseless wars
with our neighbors.”  It is interesting that Dashnaks advocate an
orientation toward Turkey in a period when Soviet rule was established in
Armenia. In an article published in the Dashnak newspaper Arac on November
20th 1920 titled “Ceasefire and Our Tendencies”, it is told
“If Armenian people want to protect its presence, it should have an
orientation not toward Russia but toward Turkey” . 
Karinyan, one of the senior statesmen of Soviet Armenia, pointed to an
important subject and underlined that the government of Young Turks had
conveyed their requests to Armenians about voluntary units before the
“Meanwhile, before the war started, the government of Turks and senior
representatives of the Committee of Union and Progress which was the
governing party had appealed to Turkish Armenians many times and requested
them to influence those who were organizing voluntary units and particularly
Vramtsan and Gagerin Pastırmacian (Armen Karo), members of this movement in
the Turkish Parliament and they promised to protect people’s rights. But,
neither requests of Turkish government nor insistent demands of Turkish
Armenians could have changed the general tendency.” 
In his book titled “Imperialist War and Armenia” and published in
1925, A.B.Karinyan points to European States, Christian missionaries and particularly
Dashnaks as accountable for the tragedy experienced by Armenian people,
because it is known that the element which aided Europeans was the Armenian
population living in Turkey. (…) “Their activities of transferring
culture in Turkey, brought harm rather than benefit.”  (…)
Karinyan, who did not mention a single word accusing Turkey for the Armenian
case, emphasized that Turkey’s Armenians lived in much more prosperous
conditions than Armenians living in Armenia in his book titled “Ancient
Turkey and Turkey’s Armenians” that was published in 1926 in two
volumes. And most importantly, he stated that nationalist historians of
Armenia distorted the truth and presented the socio-economic conditions of
Turkey’s Armenians pessimistically . In another article on the
restructuring of agriculture and the duties of Soviet rule in Armenia,
Karinyan mentioned some points that are important in seeing those who are
responsible for the events.
In the land reform he suggested, Karinyan maintained that nationalist and
imperialist illusions, which oppose giving land to Armenians who immigrated
from Turkey and argue for expanding Armenia’s territories to the disadvantage
of Turkey, should be disrupted: “It (Dashnaktsuthiun) started out from
the point of a united, national, and indivisible Armenia and annihilated
non-Armenian elements around; encouraged the gathering of people in Armenia
and while increasing the number of Armenian elements in Armenia, a small and
poor country, it continuously fed people with the dream of enlarging Armenian
lands by violating the areas on which Turkey’s Armenians lived.  (…)
Lalayan also connects the sufferings to the voluntary movement. When the
Turkish government saw brutal actions of Dashnaks and perceived the plans of
Russian Tsardom for “solving” Armenian issue, this resulted in
Turkish government’s increased pressure on Armenians.
According to Lalayan, this suited the interests of Russian Tsardom and used
it to provoke Armenians more. (…) Lalayan also underlined that Dashnaks
turned its own people into a cannon of flesh in the war with Turks and Arabs
on behalf of French capital in order to establish an “Armenian
country” in Syria as well. On the other hand, according to Lalayan,
Dashnaks threw its own people into the fire in the war against Turkey not
only in the period from the autumn of 1914 till the end of 1915 when they
prepared voluntary units of 10.000 strong as stated above, but also through
sending thousands of Armenians with Caucasian troops in 1916 and 1917. With
Lalayan’s statements, thousands of Armenian proletarians had fallen victim to
the imperialism of the Tsardom and of the West because of these policies of
Stepan Georgiyevich Shaumyan, one of the leaders and theoreticians of Armenian
Bolshevik movement, described Dashnaks as pan-Armenian and told that it
incited mutual slaughter between peoples for its own interests pertaining to
class system and imposed hatred toward other nations on Armenian people.
According to Shaumyan, Armenian uprisings on Turkish territories bore a
reactionary characteristic. Therefore, Dashnaks had sacrificed Armenian
people for their reactionary benefits.  Marents, one of the theoreticians
of the Soviet Armenia, described Dashnaks as fascist and revealed those who
were guilty of the dramatic events experienced by Armenian proletarians:
“Here, we will not dwell on who is responsible for the living of
hundreds of thousands of Armenians in foreign lands.
But there is an irrefutable truth for every sincere proletarian: Turkish
people and Armenian proletarians are not guilty. The guilty ones are Western
imperialists and their faithful dog Dashnaktsuthiun, being in the first
place.”  (…)
Armenian Sources Reveal the Genocide Lie
I we are to summarize the documents and findings in the Armenian sources, we
can outline the results as follows:
1) The “Armenian Issue”, which was described as so-called by many
officials of Soviet Armenia, was used as a weapon in the hands of Russian
Tsardom and Western imperialism. Dashnaks, who were the most significant
actors of the issue, became a tool for the Russian Tsardom’s and Western
imperialism’s plan for partitioning and colonizing Anatolia. Let aside the
opening of Caucasian front, long before the start of First World War,
voluntary units started to be formed and through spreading propaganda among
Armenian public against Turks Armenians were invited to take part in this
fighting on the side of the Entente Powers. Their tasks were to cause anarchy
at the front and rear the front and to pave the way for Russian troops with
voluntary units. In other words, Dashnaks struck Anatolia from inside with
the Armenian committees in Turkey and from outside with those in
Transcaucasia. In their own words, they served Russian Tsardom and the
imperialist West with their bloods.
2) After the Russian Tsardom collapsed following the October Revolution and a
Soviet Russia, which was friendly to Turkey, was founded, Dashnaks functioned
as a fence between Turkey and Soviet Russia. Its collaborationist character
led Dashnaktsuthiun to become the spearhead of Nazi Germany during the Second
World War. In return for this task, Dashnaks were promised a “great
Armenia extending from one sea to the other” which was described as nonsense
and as an imperialist demand by Kachaznuni himself.
3) The biggest obstacle before the “Great Armenia” project was that
Armenians were indisputably a minority in the lands of Anatolia which was
planned to be annexed within the borders of this Great Armenia. Muslim
population was much bigger than the Armenian population. Dashnaks resorted to
massacres against Muslim population in Transcaucasia, Eastern Anatolia and in
Adana province and its vicinity in a bid to realize “Greater
Armenia” project and also to fulfill their duty which had been allocated
to them by the imperialists. Massacres were systematically carried on both
during the First World War and also during the period of Dashnaks’
“independent” Armenia. The aim was to “clear this region of
Turks and Kurds” in their own words and to facilitate occupation of the
Entente Powers. Dashnaks’ terrorist-schemer character goes back to their
first years when they perpetrated terrorist attacks in order to win Western
In addition to torturing methods of the Middle Ages the Dashnak troops
supported a plundering policy in the villages they raided. Particularly the
monetary crisis of the country, which was experienced after the declaration
of the “independent republic”, was tried to be overcome in this way.
Besides, they seized the lands of Muslim villagers and transferred those
lands to their own supporters. Dashnaktsuthiun government was also ruthless
toward Armenian people and carried out unbelievable acts of violence.
Corruption, plundering, bribery had risen. Because of ceaseless wars, the
number of deserters rose to an incredible level. In order to prevent
desertions, even special units called “Terror Organ” were created.
You can imagine what kind of an aggression was put into practice against
non-Armenian people by Dashnaks who treated its own people like that.
All these experiences remind us the above-mentioned principle stated by
Boryan: “The objective makes the means justifiable.” With Boryan’s
own expressions, when a crowd of people rise up against the state during war,
being a state necessitates the demonstration of the state power and the use
of the right of self-defense by taking required measures. Therefore,
imperialist inspired uprising of Dashnaks had to be suppressed, just like the
uprisings of Aznavur family or Capanogullari family had been suppressed. In
that period, Ottomans and the Turkish Grand National Assembly fought a
rightful struggle against Dashnaks and Armenian aggression, and they defended
their country. Defense of one’s own country is the most legitimate right. It
is such that the operation of Turkish army had been welcomed with enthusiasm
by the Armenian villagers.
Those responsible for the relocation as one of those measures are Dashnaks as
well as Western imperialists and Russian Tsardom. These powers sacrificed
Armenian people for their colonialistic intentions. Neither the requests of
the leaders of the Union and Progress Party, nor the warnings of several
Dashnak leaders living in Turkey did work. It is told that archives should be
opened and the truths should be revealed. Here are the truths! The sources of
Dashnak and Soviet Armenia reveal Dashnaktsuthiun reality and thus the
Neither a single line of these documents and works was written by Turkish officials,
nor a single sheet of them is preserved in Turkish archives or libraries.
They were all written by Dashnak officials or officials of Soviet Armenia.
They are all preserved in Armenian archives and libraries. The arguments of
Turkey are corroborated by Armenian sources. The point that should be
included in their own agendas by the officials who organized this important
symposium and by the esteemed participants is to ensure that these documents
are evaluated in the international arena and to give an answer to genocide
[Quoted from Gosarhiv Armenii, by A.A.Lalayan. Ibid, p. 100.
 Quoted from Gosarhiv Armenii: Ibid.
 Quoted from Jogovurd, No.105, 1920. Ibid., p.100.
Ibid., A. Karinyan, p. 71.
 Quoted from Gosarhiv Armenii: Ibid. p. 101
 See, A.Krinyan, Ibid, p. 5.
 See, Ibid, p. 70.
 T.Hachikoglyan, Ibid, p.5.
 Quoted by A.Lalayan from Arev., No. 46, March 1918 :
“Kontrevolyutsiyonnıy Daşnaksutyun Imperialistiçeskaya Voyna 1914-1918
gg”, p. 96.
 Quoted by A.M.Elcibekyan from the State Archive of the Soviet Socialist
Republic of Armenia (TsGA Arm. SSR) : Ustanovlenie Sovyetskoy Vlasti V
Armenii, Izdatelstvo AN Armyanskoy SSR, Yerevan, 1954, p. 76.
 Ouoted by T.P.Agayan from Martik, No.2, 1918. Ibid. p.134.
 T.Hachikoglyan, Ibid.,p. 7.
Quoted by A.A. Lalayan from Jogavurd, No.102, 29 June 1920 :
“Kontrrevolyutsionnaya Rol Parti Daşnaksutyun”, p.102.
 See, RGASPI, f. 64, 1. 1, d. 208, p. 167-171.
 O.Kachaznuni, Ibid, p. 59.
 A.F.Myasnikyan, Izbrannie Proizvedeniya, p. 364.
 See, T.P.Agayan, Ibid, p.32.
RGASPI, F. 80, 1. 4, D. 83, P. 137.
 S.A. Vartanyan, Pobeda Sovyetskoy Vlasti V Armenii (1917-1920),
Akademiya Nauk Armyanskoy SSR Instut Istorii, Yerevan, 1954, p. 17, 19, 29.
 Ibid., p.17.
 Quoted by Vartanyan from Central State Archive of the Soviet Socialist
Republic of Armenia (TsGA Arm. SSR) f.66/200, d. 401/144, 1. 74, Ibid. p.29.
 A.A. Lalayan, Ibid., p. 104.
 Quoted by A.M.Elchibekyan from TsGA Arm. SSR, f. 68/200, d. 867, y.278,
Velikaya Oktyabrskaya Sotsialistiçeska Revolyutsiya İ Pobeda Sovyetskoy
Vlasti V Armenii, İzdateltsvo Armyanskoy SSR, Yerevan, 1957, p. 209.
B.A.Boryan, “Armenia, International Diplomacy and USSR”, 1929,
 O.Kachaznuni, Ibid., p.13.
 Ibid., p. 21.
 Ibid., p. 69.
 Ibid., p. 73.
 RGASPI, F. 80, 1. 4, D. 83, P. 136
 Quoted from Arac, No.255, November 20, 1920: by A.A.Lalayan in Ibid., p.
105 and by T.P.Agayan, Ibid, p. 31.
 A.Karinyan, Ibid., p. 59.
 Quoted from A.Karinyan, Sobranie Soçineniy, v. 1, Yerevan, 1934, p. 117,
121, 162, 226 and on, by K.N.Karamyan, Ibid., p. 14.
 Quoted from A.Karinyan, Straya Turtsiya İ Turetskie Armyane, v. 1-2,
“Nork”, 1926; Ibid., p.14.
 Quoted from Ekonomiçeski Vestnik SSR Armenii, No. 3-4, March-April 1923,
Yerevan, p. 52,
 A.Lalayan, “Kontrrevolyutsionny Daşnaksutyun İ İmperialistiçeskaya
Voyna 1914-1918 gg”, p. 93.
 See, A.Karinyan, Şaumyan İ Nasionalistiçeskie Teçeniya Na Kavkaze,
İspart Otdel TsKı BKAKP (b), Baku 1918, p. 8, 29, 32 and on.
 Marents, “Litso Armyanskogo Smenohovstva”, Bolshevik
Zakavkazya, No.3-4, 1928, p. 94.
Source: Symposium on the Development of Turkish-Armenian
Relations and Events of 1915, Ankara 2005