Global Warming / Climate Change


Background


“Climate
Change” is a hotbed topic among politicians, scientists, environmentalists, and
many every-day people that live on Planet Earth.  Are WE causing the
change? Or is this a normal, scientific event that has no cause, but rather, is
simply Mother Nature.


Below are
records pertaining to climate change found throughout different agencies.


 Declassified Documents


 Two
Degrees of Separation: Abrupt Climate Change and the Adverse Impact to US
National Security, April 2009
 [55 Pages, 0.9MB] – Scientific
evidence indicates recent global climate trends which if remain unchanged or
develop further could result in abrupt climate change. Abrupt climate change
could result in serious environmental and social impacts. The most serious
environmental impact would be the disruption of the natural processes which
sustain, feed, and fuel people and nations. The disruption of these natural
ecosystem processes could result in the scarcity and/or inaccessibility of
vital natural resources like water, food, and energy supplies. Scarcity and/or
inaccessibility of vital natural resources could create social and political
turmoil and adversely impact regional stability and homeland security. As the
US is the largest historical producer of carbon dioxide, the most prevalent of
the greenhouse gases, it should reform and adopt policies to adapt to the
effects and/or mitigate the onset of abrupt climate change. Failure to take
action will leave the US vulnerable to the environmental, social, and political
impacts of abrupt climate change and threaten national security and vital US
interests.


 Should
the U.S. Ratify the Kyoto Treaty? 27 March 2009
 by Lieutenant
Colonel Adrian C. Poné [30 Pages, 0.7MB] – Global warming is a
serious issue but also a contentious one; perhaps the fate of the planet
hinges on man’s ability to limit anthropogenic greenhouse gases such
as carbon dioxide (CO2), which to some, is causing an alarming rise in the
earth’s temperature, with potentially catastrophic results. And yet to
others, the global warming issue is a non-issue, the so-called global
warming alarmism is really no cause for concern, and the investment in
reducing CO2 is not worth the benefit. At the center of the debate is the
Kyoto protocol, an international treaty which mandates reduction in CO2
emissions, primarily from industrial nations to pre-1990 levels. To date, the
U.S. has not ratified Kyoto while over almost all the world’s countries,
have. This paper will examine Kyoto and the impact of signing it. In doing
so, this paper will discuss global warming, is it real, and is man causing
it? This paper will explore many of the issues surrounding the global
warming debate, the ramifications of ratifying Kyoto and the costs and
benefits of adopting a “greener” society.


 How
America Can Look Within to Achieve Energy Security and Reduce Global Warming,
September 2008
 [113 Pages, 5.3MB] – Making major gains in energy
efficiency is one of the most economical and effective ways our nation can wean
itself off its dependence on foreign oil and reduce its emissions of greenhouse
gases. Transportation and buildings, which account for two thirds of American
energy usage, consume far more than they need to, but even though there are many
affordable energy efficient technologies that can save consumers money, market
imperfections inhibit their adoption. To overcome the barriers, the federal
government must adopt policies that will transform the investments into
economic and societal benefit. And the federal government must invest in
research and development programs that target energy efficiency. Energy
efficiency is one of America’s great hidden energy reserves. We should begin
tapping it now.


 Global
Warming Could Have a Chilling Effect on the Military, October 2003
 [9
Pages, 0.7MB] – Most debates and studies addressing potential climate
change have focused on the buildup of industrial greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere and a gradual increase in global temperatures. But this “slow ramp”
climate change scenario ignores recent and rapidly advancing evidence that
Earth’s climate repeatedly has become much colder, warmer, wetter, or drier-in
time spans as short as three to 10 years. Earth’s climate system appears to
have sensitive thresholds, the crossing of which shifts the system into
different modes of operation and triggers rapid, non-linear, and not
necessarily global changes. This new paradigm of abrupt climate change does not
appear to be on the radar screens of military planners, who treat climate
change as a long term, low-level threat, with mostly sociological, not national
security, implications. But intense and abrupt climate changes could escalate
environmental issues into unanticipated security threats, and could compromise
an unprepared military. The global ocean circulation system, often called the
Ocean Conveyor, can change rapidly and shift the distribution patterns of heat
and rainfall over large areas of the globe. The North Atlantic region is
particularly vulnerable to abrupt regional coolings linked to ocean circulation
changes. Global warming and ocean circulation changes also threaten the Arctic
Ocean’s sea ice cover. Beyond the abrupt climatic impacts, fundamental changes
in ocean circulation also have immediate naval implications. Recent evidence
suggests that the oceans already may be experiencing large-scale changes that
could affect Earth’s climate. Military planners should begin to consider
potential abrupt climate change scenarios and their impacts on national
defense.


 JPRS
Report, Environmental Issues, Japan: Response Strategies for Global Warming
Studied, 12 June 1990
 [134 Pages, 4.9MB] – This report contains
the proceedings carried out between January and June 1989 by the subgroups of
the Advisory Committee on Climate change whose aim was to assess the
environmental impacts and to evaluate response strategies. This follows the
first interim report submitted in November 1988 by the Advisory Committee on
climate change. This volume contains summaries of the reports given by the
members of the subgroups. Interest in the global warming effect has seen a
soaring increase over the past year. However, a comprehensive and in-depth
understanding of the problem is quite difficult to attain even among
specialists within the field. Furthermore, the studies being conducted by the
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change) on the scientific aspects,
environmental and socioeconomic impacts, and response strategies have not yet
laid down any guidelines. Thus, with this background in view, these groups have
conducted their own investigations on similar categories as is being considered
by IPCC, in order to sort out the issues involved in the problem. Although this
report was prepared with the intension of integrating all knowledge on the
issue, it cannot be said to cover all views currently held both inside and
outside of Japan. To cope with the global warming problem, considerations of
more specific issues are needed. The present interim report, although not as
comprehensive as desired, has been made public with the intention of providing
a starting point in the assessment of our common and needed efforts which are
necessary in order to assess and deal with the issue of global warming more
effectively.


Department
of the NAVY Records


 Global
Climate Change Implications for the United States Navy, May 1990
 [86
Pages, 7.56MB]


Military War College Theses


 Military
Implications of Global Warming, 20 May 1999
 [42 Pages, 1.3MB]
– The 1998 National Security Strategy repeatedly cites global
environmental issues as key to the long-term security of the United States.
Similarly, U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications.
This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global warming and
climate change. It discusses related economic factors and environmental
concerns. It assesses current White House policy as it relates to the U.S.
military. It reviews the Department of Defense strategy for energy conservation
and reduction of greenhouse gases. Finally, it offers recommendations and
options for military involvement to reduce global warming. Global warming and
other environmental issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United
States leadership in environmental matters encourages global stability, the
U.S. military will be able to focus more on readiness and on military training
and operations.


 Global-Warming:
A National Security Issue, 13 Feb 2006
 [22 Pages, 0.2MB] – The
waters in the Canadian Arctic are quickly becoming free to navigate due to
global warming. international shipping bombards the region, the United States
and Canada must be ready to face the security implications that will arise. A
failure to do so may leave an opening for another terrorist strike on American
soil. We must also be prepared to protect our interests in the region. Focus on
Arctic oil is becoming a reality as we move towards freeing ourselves from
dependence on oil from the Middle East. Preparing for operations in the Arctic
must begin with a strong and cooperative relationship with our Canadian
neighbors. Differences must be settled quickly particularly the issue over the
sovereignty of the Canadian archipelago. We must also understand the
implications of operating in the north with respect to the indigenous
population and the environment. The success of the operations in the north
depends on proactive planning now is the time.


 Global
Warming: Its Implications for US National Security Policy, 19 March 2009
 [30
Pages, 0.4MB] – The approach to this topic will be to look at the science
behind anthropogenic global warming. Is man largely responsible for causing
global warming due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, or is this
climate change part of a natural cycle? Both sides of the issue will be
addressed. This paper will then investigate the nexus between global warming
and U.S. national security policy. It will address the challenges facing U.S.
leaders and policy makers as they tackle the issue of global warming and its
implications for U.S. policy. Finally it will conclude with recommendations for
those leaders as the U.S. seeks to ameliorate the impact of global climate
change, and thereby improve U.S. national security.



 National
Security Implications of Global Warming Policy, March 2010
 [29 Pages,
0.7MB] – Although numerous historical examples demonstrate how actual
climate change has contributed to the rise and fall of powers, global warming,
in and of itself, is not our nation’s greatest climate threat. Rather, the
greatest climate threat to national security is the world’s perception of
climate change and the resulting governmental and intergovernmental policies
enacted to reduce the theorized anthropogenic greenhouse warming. As
governments become convinced that global warming is universally bad and humans
are the primary cause, political leaders may develop ill-advised policies
restricting US access and use of global energy supplies, weaken the US economy,
and unfairly advantage rising developing nations. These three actions could
combine to threaten United States security by reducing our relative national
power in comparison with rising nations. Rather than adopting multilateral
policies aimed at reducing the carbon emissions of developed nations, the
United States should continue to resist adopting Kyoto Protocol type policies
to preserve our national wealth to better fund Homeland Defense and national
security.

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