ARAŞTIRMA DOSYALARI


Cold Fusion


The site
ColdFusionNow.com describes “Cold Fusion” as the following:


Cold
fusion describes a form of energy generated when hydrogen interacts with
various metals like nickel and palladium. Cold fusion is a field of
condensed matter nuclear science CMNS, and is also called low-energy nuclear
reactions LENR,lattice-assisted nuclear reactions LANR, low energy
nanoscale reactions LENR, among others.


Cold
fusion is also referred to as the Anomalous Heat Effect AHE, reflecting
the fact that there is no definitive theory of the elusive reaction.


The
following are documents related to “Cold Fusion.”


Declassified Documents


Sorted
from Newest to Oldest based on publication date.


The Status of “Cold
Fusion”
, February 17, 1998 [29 Pages, 2.5MB] – The questions
raised by reports of nuclear reactions at low energies, so called ‘cold
fusion,’ are not yet answered to the satisfaction of many scientists. Further
experimental investigations of these and related questions seems desirable, at
least for scientific if not practical reasons. Properly conducted, such
investigations would be indistinguishable from normal research. They would
yield information germane to accepted areas of scientific inquiry and technological
utility. The announcement on 23 March 1989 by Pons and Fleischmann that they
had achieved power generation from nuclear reactions at ordinary temperature
had a rapid and enormous impact. About six weeks later, the cover stories of
three major popular news magazines in the U. S. were on ‘cold fusion’. The
response to the prospect of easy and inexhaustible energy, maybe with little
residual radiation, was comparable to the public reaction to Roentgen’s report
of x-rays in 1895. Then it was thought that privacy would no longer be
possible. The strength of the ‘cold fusion’ surprise had two bases. One was the
strong knowledge, on the part of physicists, that high energy beams (or
equivalently, high temperature plasmas, with their associated high particle velocities)
are needed to force nuclei into contact, a prerequisite for their reaction.
Physicists had worked hard for four decades, and spent billions of dollars, in
only partially successful efforts to produce and contain the multi-million
degree plasmas needed to get significant energy out of nuclear fusion. Despite
the major progress on heating fusion plasmas, and on overcoming many
instabilities which tend to destroy plasma containment, three milestones remain
to make fusion energy useful.


A Summary of NRL
Research on Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Palladium Electrochemical Systems
,
January 9, 1996 [146 Pages, 9.6MB] – Claims of excess power produced in
electrochemical cells have been made by many investigators including those from
two Navy laboratories. The excess power reportedly occurs in palladium
electrodes highly loaded with deuterium. Other anomalous effects such helium-4,
tritium and low energy radiation production have also been reported. This
report summarizes the experimental results from a number of electrochemical
loading/calorimetric experiments on palladium electrodes run at NRL. The
experiments were carried out with the purpose of replicating the published
excess power results obtained at the other Navy laboratories and with the goal
of identifying the experimental conditions necessary to produce anomalous
effects. Most of the experiments described were attempts to electrolytically
load pure palladium or palladium alloy cathodes with deuterium (or hydrogen)
and then to measure the power produced in the electrolytic cells. Loading was
monitored in situ by measuring the change in the axial resistance of the
cathode and comparing the measure values with the known relationship between
resistance and the D(H)/Pd atomic ratios. While attaining high levels of
deuterium loading in palladium cathodes was difficult we found that using
materials with a large grain microstructure facilitated the loading.
Calorimetric measurements on the highly loaded cathodes were initially made in
isoperibol calorimeters that had a sensitivity of ±10%. No excess power (200
mW) and no radiation above the background were measured in any of the experiments
described. Highly sensitive heat conduction calorimeters were evaluated for
their use with the electrochemical cells. Results showed that measurements at
the ±10 mW level were possible in the heat conduction calorimeters when data
were collected frequently and signal averaging was used. Another experiment
that was investigated was the electrochemical codeposition of palladium and
deuterium on cathodes. Again, no radiation above background levels was detected
in these experiments.


 Cold
Fusion Verification
, March 1991 [62 Pages, 2.3MB] – The objective
of this work was to verify and reproduce experimental observations of Cold
Nuclear Fusion (CNF), as originally reported in 1989 by Fleischmann, Pons, and
Hawkins (see reference 1). The method was to start with the original report and
add such additional information as became available to build a set of
operational electrolytic CNF cells. Verification was to be achieved by first
observing cells for neutron production, and for those cells that demonstrated a
nuclear effect, careful calorimetric measurements were planned.


 The
Accelerating Mechanism in Cold Fusion
, 18 September 1990 (COPYRIGHTED DOCUMENT – USED UNDER FAIR
USE
) [25 Pages, 1.7MB] – The report of the observation
of “cold fusion” reaction accompanying the saturation of palladium and
titanium by deuterium appeared entirely unexpectedly and has
attracted enormous interest worldwide. Meanwhile, however, references to
the possibility of such phenomena go back some years.



The
post Cold
Fusion
appeared first on The Black Vault.

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