defense or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state
(generally non-combatants) from military attack. It uses the principles of
emergency operations: prevention, mitigation, preparation, response, or
emergency evacuation, and recovery. Programmes of this sort were initially
discussed at least as early as the 1920s and were implemented in many
countries, but only became widespread in the USA after the threat of nuclear
weapons was realised.

Since the
end of the Cold War, the focus of civil defense has largely shifted from
military attack to emergencies and disasters in general. The new concept is
described by a number of terms, each of which has its own specific shade of
meaning, such as crisis management, emergency management, emergency
preparedness, contingency planning, emergency services, and civil protection.

In some
countries, civil defense is seen as a key part of “total defense”. For example
in Sweden, the Swedish word totalförsvar refers to the commitment of a wide
range of resources of the nation to its defense – including to civil
protection. (Source: Wikipedia)

Declassified Documents

of the U.S. and Soviet Crisis Management Experiences. Technical Report, 1 Oct
1978-28 Sep 1979
[372 Pages, 14.9mb] – This report presents
the first systematic analysis of the outcomes of U.S. and Soviet crises from
1966 through 1978. The analyses are designed to identify general trends and
patterns in these data. The information developed has been deliberately
structured so that it can be used as a tool by crisis planners and
decision-makers. To this end, it is embodied in an executive aid for crisis
decision-makers (CACI, 1979 report). This aid is a highly user- oriented
database management system that allows planners to focus upon their own
specific concerns. Moreover, the system is designed so that users can adapt it
to incorporate additional outcomes data (developed from either open or
classified sources) for use in their analyses. While a deliberate attempt has
been made in the development of the database and its analysis to avoid drawing
normative judgments concerning the ‘correctness’ of either U.S. or Soviet
goals, the existence of the outcomes data provides a diagnostic base for
evaluation of various goals’ achievement and thereby helps in the process of
selecting and evaluating crisis action options.

Defense Aspects of Bio, Chem, and Radio. Warfare against Crops, Animals and Man
23 June 1952 [74 Pages, 19.5MB]

Defense in Metropolitan America. Organization of Zonal Civil Defense Systems
for Large Populated Areas, January 1972
[126 Pages, 5.3mb]
– The Institute of Public Administration since 1967 has been studying the
organization of civil defense (that is, its nuclear threat components) in large
population centers drawing on its background in administration, urban analysis,
and metropolitanization. An earlier report submitted in 1969 to the U. S.
Office of Civil Defense outlined several themes for making civil defense
building and operating systems relevant to the requirements of the major
metropolitan areas. IPA then was asked to continue its analysis, with
particular reference to a zonal (or large area) concept of civil defense. The
report helps define a potential organizational strategy for the zonal concept.
The report is not a definitive design for implementing the zonal concept;
rather, it probes the issue, describes and analyzes the universe within which a
zonal system of civil defense inescapably would evolve, and applies a case
study methodology– which is more an exercise in exposition than in
organizational engineering.

Defense Systems: Social Impact and Management Planning, April 1972

[197 Pages, 9.9mb] – The bibliography — one in a series on Civil Defense
Systems — contains a compilation of references on Social Impact and Management
Planning. References contained in this volume pertain to psychological factors
related to recovery from nuclear attack; public response to community shelter
planning; fallout shelter management responsibilities; emergency operations
training; attitudes toward civil defense; requirements for local planning to
cover hazards of fallout; food processing and distribution; and the roles of
the dentist and pharmacists in national disasters. Other bibliographies in this
series are: Preattaack and Postattack (Nuclear Warfare), and Shelters.
Corporate Author- Monitoring Agency, Subject, Title, Contract, and Report
Number Indexes are included.

Core Training Program for State Level Civil Defense Program Personnel

[230 Pages, 8.9mb] – The purpose of this study was to derive information
required improving State level civil defense training and to apply this
information to the development of required courses for achieving this purpose.
In order to achieve this goal, research was first conducted to determine the
training requirements for the governmental and auxiliary personnel that are
needed to implement State civil defense operational plans. Second, training
materials were developed to meet these requirements.

Delphi Examination of Civil Defense: 1. Questions, Issues, and Arguments, May
 [104 Pages, 13.9MB] – This Memorandum
exposes opposing arguments about U.S. civil defense in the broad context of
strategic issues, international factors, and domestic considerations. The
information has gathered by the Delphi method of eliciting and refining group
judgments. The exercise consists of several iterations of questions and
responses, with carefully controlled feedback between rounds.

Civil Defense Organization: The Rationale of its Development, Jan 1965

[104 Pages, 5.4mb] – The present study examines the organizational concepts
which have emerged during the modern history of civil defense. Since these have
derived largely from polityoriented approaches, concepts of the role of civil
defense in national security policy and machinery, of Federal, State, and local
responsibilities, and of emergency powers are stressed. The issues underlying
these polity problems are considered under three main headings: the mission and
purpose of civil defense, the operational requirements for fulfilling the life-
saving mission, and the policy constraints which limit the range of feasible
ways to meet requirements. Cost/effectiveness analyses are suggested for
initial comparisons of the alternative organizational systems for satisfying
requirements for protective capabilities, emergency services, resource
allocation, and communications systems. Broad organizational proposals which
have been recommended are examined, and the principal reasons for which they
have been rejected are indicated.

Report for the Office of Civil Defense Warning System Research Support Vol. I:
Radio Warning System Studies, 31 January 1966
Pages, 30.2MB] – The report summarizes the results of the research effort
in the area of civil defense warning system and comprises the final report
required by the contract.

Report for the Office of Civil Defense Warning System Research Support Vol. II:
Radio Warning System Studies, 31 January 1966
Pages, 20.6MB] – This report summarizes the results of the research effort
in the area of civil defense warning system and comprises the final report
required by the contract.

Report for the Office of Civil Defense Warning System Research Support Vol.
III: Use of Damage Assessment Information for Warning, 31 January 1966
Pages, 6.64mb] – In April 1964, System Development Corporation (SDC) was
awarded a contract (OCD-PS-64-183) by the Office of Civil Defense to continue
activities in the area of civil defense warning system research support. The
basic contract was modified and amended several times. This volume and two
others, TM-L-1960/090/00 and TM-L-1960/091/00, are, together, the final report
recognized by the contract. These volumes of the final report represent the
results of the research effort.

of Air and Sea Power in Regional Crisis Control, June 1992

[284 Pages, 11.1mb] – Air power and sea power will be the most useful
instruments of military force available to planners over the coming decade.
Why? Because virtually all conflict during the next ten years will be regional
in character. In the context of regional crisis, control of the vertical ladder
of escalation will be the concern of the political leadership and, therefore,
the most critical task facing the military commander and planners. Our
strategists must develop a coherent and usable concept for the integrated use
of air and sea power, involving U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force assets.
The powerful synergism that can be achieved by truly integrating `air and sea
power has yet to be realized, although we learned much about it in the Persian
Gulf war. U.S. warfighters and strategists must assess and improve all aspects
of military performance in this critical area — integration of air and sea
power in regional crisis control — in order to face effectively the
geostrategic environment over the next decade.

Governing Bodies: Their Relation to Civil Defense, Mar 1967

[169 Pages, 8.3mb] – Local government officials are key decision-makers in the
implementation of civil defense programs on the local level. As local officials
are given new tasks in civil defense, they understand their roles to varying
degrees. The report focuses on (1) the extent to which local officials
understand their own civil defense roles, (2) the extent to which they
understand the civil defense roles of other local officials, (3) the local
officials’ evaluations of their own civil defense role performances, and (4)
their evaluations of the civil defense role performances of other local
officials. Findings are stated. Implications are drawn from the findings for
change agents.

Minicipal Governments for Civil Defense, October 1963
 [ 307
Pages, 18.3MB ] – The study describes the civil defense
responsibilities of municipal government as defined by present federal programs
and policies, especially as they relate to the fallout shelter program. Six
cities are then analyzed to determine the manner in which community resources
have been organized to meet these responsibilities. The cities were selected to
represent the several common forms of city government and to provide a wide
geographic distribution and spectrum of population sizes from the very small
city to the large metropolitan city. Each case study provides a profile of the
city to establish its essential characteristics and identify any exceptional
circumstances that may be peculiar to the city and affect its civil defense
capabilities. The preparations made by the city for government operations in
the event of nuclear or natural disaster are investigated, including continuity
of government, emergency powers, and the civil defense agency, its financing,
program, and facilities for emergency operations. The emergency operations or
survival plans of each city are related to the assignment of its regular
departments and agencies to emergency disaster functions. The utilization made
of volunteers and non-governmental agencies, organizations, and institutions to
augment and supplement city forces is described.

Role of Civil Defense and the Scope of Its Mission in U. S. National Security
Strategy, April 1992
[ 35 Pages, 1.5MB ] – In our
constantly changing world, and especially with the breakup of the Soviet Union,
it seems timely to review the current status of the United States civil defense
program with a primary focus being the future configuration of the program. Our
current civil defense program evolved during a time when nuclear confrontation
between the U.S. and the Soviet Union was the primary threat to national
security. This threat is now greatly diminished, but our civil. defense program
continues to emphasize attack-related emergencies with secondary emphasis on
disaster-related emergencies. The National Security Strategy of -the United
States published by The White House in August, 1991 states that, Our civil
defense program is still needed to deal with the consequences of an attack,
while also providing capabilities to respond to natural and man-made
catastrophes. One might question whether we still need a civil defense program
to deal with the consequences of attack. After all, who has the capability and
will to attack the U.S.? On the other hand, natural and man-made catastrophes
continue to affect our country. While these catastrophes may wreak havoc on a
local area, it could be argued that they most likely would not directly impact
our national security. Therefore, we must determine whether our civil defense
program should continue to emphasize the consequences of an attack, or whether
it is more appropriate to shift its emphasis to natural and man-made

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